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Interactions Among Species
Species continuously interact with one another; the images here demonstrate such specific interactions as pollination, predation and mutualism.

Defense: Poisons & More

Camouflage, toxin, and venom...there are many species out there that, in order to survive, have evolved means of defense, which sometimes can be used also for attack.

  • Defense: Poisons & More

Mutualism, etc

Mutualism and commensalism – these relationships are beneficial to one or more of the involved species, while at least not harming the other.

  • Mutualism, etc

Parasitism, Disease

Parasites are animals, plants, or fungi living on or within another organism, deriving benefit from it while causing injury. Parasites are prevalent throughout the plant and animal kingdoms.

  • Parasitism, Disease


Pollination is the transfer of male gametes, or pollen, from the male part of a flower to a female part in the same or different flower that has eggs. These images show how animals may wind up transferring pollen when feeding from flowers.


There are many different levels of predation, but mostly predation is defined as the act of killing and consuming another organism. This act is the means of survival for many species, and is captured in these images.