Scientific information presented on the U.S. Geological Survey's National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) Amphibians Site is provided by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Savannah River Ecology Lab.  Reviews of literature are authored by scientists at the University of Georgia Savannah River Ecology Lab under the leadership of Dr. Whit Gibbons.  The site is published by NBII with support from the Southeast Information Node.

For a complete listing of literature cited within this site, refer to the citations featured below. 


    Beebee, T. J. C. 1995. Amphibian breeding and climate. Nature 374:219-220.

    Blaustein, A. R. and L. K. Belden. 2005. Ultraviolet radiation. Pp. 87-88. In: Amphibian Declines, M. Lannoo (Editor). University of California Press, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

    Blaustein, A. R. and P. T. J. Johnson (2003). The complexity of deformed amphibians. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1: 87-94.

    Boone, M. D. and C. M. Bridges 2003. Effects of pesticides on amphibian populations. Pp. 152-167. In Amphibian Conservation, R.D. Semlitsch (Editor). Smithsonian Books: Washington, DC.

    Bridges, C. M. and R. D. Semlitsch. 2005. Xenobiotics. Pp. 89-92 In: Amphibian Declines, M. Lannoo (Editor). University of California Press, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

    Burkhart, J.G., J.C. Helgen, D.J. Fort, K. Gallagher, D. Bowers, T.L. Propst, M. Gernes, J. Magner, M.D. Shelby and G. Lucier. 1998. Induction of mortality and malformation in Xenopus laevis embryos by water sources associated with field frog deformities. Environmental Health Perspectives 106:841-848.

    Carey, C. L., and M. A. Alexander. 2003. Climate change and amphibian declines: is there a link? Diversity and Distributions 2003:111-121.

    Collins, J.P., J. L. Brunner, V. Miera, M. J. Parris, D. M. Schock, and A. Storfer. 2003. Ecology and evolution of infectious disease. Pp. 137-151In: Amphibian Conservation, R.D. Semlitsch (Editor). Smithsonian Books: Washington, DC.

    Daszak, P., D. E. Scott, A. M. Kilpatrick, C. Faggioni, J. W. Gibbons, and D. Porter. 2005. Amphibian population declines at Savannah River Site are linked to climate, not chytridiomycosis. Ecology 86:3232-3237.

    Dodd, C. K., Jr., and L. L. Smith. 2003. Habitat destruction and alteration: historical trends and future prospects for amphibians. Pp. 94-112 In Amphibian Conservation, R.D. Semlitsch (Editor). Smithsonian Books: Washington, DC.

    Gallant, A. L., R. W. Klaver, G. S. Casper, and M. J. Lannoo. 2007. Global rates of habitat loss and implications for amphibian conservation. Copeia 2007(4):967-979.

    Gibbs, J. P., and A. R. Breisch. 2001. Climate warming and calling phenology of frogs near Ithaca, New York, 1900-1999. Conservation Biology 15:1175-1178.

    Hopkins, W.A., J. Congdon, and J.K. Ray. 2000. Incidence and impact of axial malformations in larval bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) developing in sites polluted by a coal-burning power plant. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 19:862-868.

    IPCC, 2007. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

    Johnson, P. T. J., J. M. Chase, K. L. Dosch, R. B. Hartson, J. A. Gross, D. J. Larson, D. R. Sutherland, and S. R. Carpenter. 2007. Aquatic eutrophication promotes pathogenic infection in amphibians. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104:15781-15786.

    Lannoo, M. 2008. Malformed Frogs: The Collapse of Aquatic Ecosystems. University of California Press: Los Angeles, CA, USA.

    Maerz, J. C., B. Blossey, and V. Nuzzo. 2005. Green frogs show reduced foraging success in habitats invaded by Japanese knotweed. Biodiversity and Conservation 14: 2901-2911.

    Morehouse, E. A., T. Y. James, A. R. D. Ganley, R. Vilgalys, L. Berger, P. J. Murphy, and J. E. Longcore. 2003. Multilocus sequence typing suggests the chytrid pathogen of amphibians is a recently emerged clone. Molecular Ecology 12:395-403.

    Ouellet, M., J. Bonin, J. Rodrigue, J.-L. DesGranges and S. Lair. 1997. Hindlimb deformities (ectromelia, ectrodactyly) in free-living anurans from agricultural habitats. Journal of Wildlife Disease 33:95-104.

    Pounds, J. A., and M. L. Crump. 1994. Amphibian declines and climate disturbance: The case of the golden toad and the harlequin frog. Conservation Biology 8:72-85.

    Pounds, J. A., M. R. Bustamante, L. A. Coloma, J. A. Consuegra, M. P. L. Fogden, P. N. Foster, E. La Marca, K. L. Masters, A. Merino-Viteri, R. Puschendorf, S. R. Ron, G. A. Sanchez-Azofeifa, C. J. Still, and B. E. Young. 2006. Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming. Nature 439:161-167.

    Sessions, S. K. 2003. What is causing deformed amphibians? Pp. 168-186 in: Amphibian Conservation, R.D. Semlitsch (Editor). Smithsonian Books: Washington, DC.

    Skelly, D. K., S. R. Bolden, L. K. Freidenburg, N. A. Freidenfelds, and R. Levey. 2007. Ribeiroia infection is not responsible for Vermont amphibian deformities. EcoHealth 4:156-163.

    Stuart, S. N., J. S. Chanson, N. A. Cox, B. E. Young, A. S. L. Rodrigues, D. L. Fischman, and R. W. Waller. 2004. Status and trends of amphibian declines and extinctions worldwide. Science 306:1783-1786.

    Whitfield, S. M., K. E. Bell, T. Philippi, M. Sasa, F. Bolanos, G. Chaves, J. M. Savage, and M. A. Donnelly. 2007. Amphibian and reptile declines over 35 years at La Selva, Costa Rica. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104:8352-8356.

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