Regulatory Assessment of the Final Revised Accessibility Guidelines for the Americans with Disabilities Act and Architectural Barriers Act

July 2004

This assessment has been developed and reviewed in accordance with the Access Board’s information quality guidelines (www.access-board.gov/infoquality.htm).

 

CONTENTS


 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The Access Board prepared this assessment of the final revised accessibility guidelines for the Americans with Disabilities Act and Architectural Barriers Act pursuant to Executive Order 12866.  The Americans with Disabilities Act requires newly constructed and altered State and local government facilities, places of public accommodation, and commercial facilities to be accessible to individuals with disabilities.  The Architectural Barriers Act requires federally financed facilities to be accessible, including facilities leased by Federal agencies. 

 

The Access Board is required to establish and maintain accessibility guidelines for facilities covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act and Architectural Barriers Act.  The guidelines serve as the basis for enforceable standards issued by other agencies under the Americans with Disabilities Act and Architectural Barriers Act.  The Access Board initially issued the Minimum Guidelines and Requirements for Accessible Design (MGRAD) for the Architectural Barriers Act in 1982, and the Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) in 1991. 

 

Since the enactment of the Americans with Disabilities Act, accessibility requirements have been increasingly incorporated in the model codes.  The Access Board worked collaboratively with the International Code Council (ICC) and the ANSI A117 Committee to harmonize the final revised guidelines with the International Building Code, which was first published in 2000, and the ICC/ANSI A117.1 Standard on Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities, which is referenced in the International Building Code.  The International Building Code has been adopted statewide by 28 States and by local governments in another 15 States. 

 

Harmonizing the accessibility guidelines for the Americans with Disabilities Act and Architectural Barriers Act with the International Building Code and the ICC/ANSI A117.1 standard promotes increased compliance, efficiency, and economic growth.  It is difficult and time consuming for business owners, builders, developers, and architects to deal with different accessibility requirements at the Federal, State, and local government levels.  Differing requirements can contribute to mistakes resulting in litigation and costly retrofitting of facilities after they are constructed.  The Americans with Disabilities Act authorizes the Department of Justice to certify State or local codes that meet or exceed Federal accessibility requirements.  State and local governments that adopt the International Building Code will find it easier to have their codes certified, and more State and local governments are expected to submit their codes to the Department of Justice for certification.  In jurisdictions where codes have been certified by the Department of Justice, business owners, builders, developers, and architects can rely on their State or local government building plan approval and inspection processes as a “check-point” for ensuring that their facilities comply with Federal accessibility requirements.  Potential mistakes can be corrected early in the construction process when adjustments can be made easily and inexpensively compared to costly retrofitting after a facility is constructed.  Compliance with a certified code is also evidence of compliance with Federal accessibility requirements in litigation to enforce the Americans with Disabilities Act.

 

The Access Board also revised some requirements in the current guidelines for the Americans with Disabilities Act and Architectural Barriers Act to reduce the impacts on facilities, including lowering the number of wheelchair spaces and assistive listening systems required in large sports facilities; exempting small raised press boxes in sports facilities from the accessible route requirements; exempting parking lots with a few parking spaces from signage requirements for accessible parking spaces; and reducing the number of toilet rooms required to be accessible where multiple single user toilet rooms are clustered at the same location.

 

The regulatory assessment for the proposed rule estimated that the national costs of the rule would be $87.5 million annually for newly constructed office buildings, hotels, and sports stadiums and arenas.  The Board adopted alternatives in the final revised guidelines that eliminate these costs as shown in Table ES.1.

 

Table ES.1 – Alternatives That Eliminate Costs Estimated for the Proposed Rule (text version)

Proposed Rule

Final Revised Guidelines

Visible alarms required in all employee work areas, including individual offices.  Estimated cost:  $16 million annually.

Visible alarms required in public and common use areas, which is consistent with current guidelines.  Where employee work areas have audible alarm coverage, wiring system required to be designed so that visible alarms can be added to the system as needed.

Communication features required in 50 percent of hotel guest rooms.   Estimated cost:  $31 million annually.

No change from current guidelines, which require substantially less than 50 percent of hotel guest rooms to provide communication features.

Elevators and platform lifts required to be provided in sufficient number, capacity, and speed so that persons using wheelchair spaces and designated aisle seats have equivalent level of service as persons in the same seating area who can use stairs.  Estimated cost:  $1.5 million annually.

No change from current guidelines, which require at least one accessible route to connect each story and mezzanine in multi-story facilities.

Wheelchair spaces and designated aisle seats required to be dispersed vertically on each accessible level.  Estimated cost:  $33.5 million annually.

Wheelchair spaces required to be dispersed vertically at varying distances from the screen, performance area, or playing field, which is consistent with current guidelines.

Companion seats required to be readily removable and to provide additional wheelchair spaces.  Estimated cost:  $4 million annually.

Companion seats permitted to be removable, but not required to provide additional wheelchair spaces.

One percent of seats required to be designated aisle seats; 25 percent of designated aisle seats required to be on an accessible route; and rest of designated aisle seats required to be not more than two rows from an accessible route.  Estimated cost:  $1.5 million annually.

Five percent of aisle seats required to be designated aisle seats and to be aisle seats closest to accessible routes.

 

This assessment compares the final revised guidelines to the current guidelines and the International Building Code in order to evaluate the potential impacts of the revisions.  In the absence of the final revised guidelines, newly constructed and altered facilities covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act would have to comply with ADAAG as initially issued in 1991, which has been adopted as enforceable standards by the Department of Justice and Department of Transportation.  Many newly constructed and altered facilities covered by the Architectural Barriers Act are also required to comply with ADAAG when it provides a greater level of accessibility compared to the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS).  Comparing the final revised guidelines to the current guidelines is the upper bound of the range of potential impacts.  The International Building Code has been adopted statewide by 28 States and by local governments in another 15 States.  In the absence of the final revised guidelines, newly constructed and altered facilities are required to comply with the International Building Code in jurisdictions that have adopted the model code.  Comparing the final revised guidelines to the International Building Code is the lower bound of the range of potential impacts, and assumes that facilities covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act and Architectural Barriers Act are also required to comply with equivalent requirements in the International Building Code.  The actual impacts will be between the lower and upper bound of the range.

 

The final revised guidelines reorganize and renumber ADAAG, and rewrite the text to be clearer and easier to understand.  Most of the scoping and technical requirements in ADAAG have not been changed.  An independent codes expert compared the final revised guidelines and ADAAG to identify revisions that add new features or space to a facility, or present design challenges compared to ADAAG.  The codes expert identified 27 revisions that are expected to have minimal impacts on the new construction and alterations of facilities, including adding scoping requirements and exceptions for  common use circulation paths in employee work areas; revising scoping requirements for public entrances; referencing the International Building Code for accessible means of egress; adding scoping requirements for dwelling units with mobility features in Federal, State, and local government housing; lowering the high side reach; and adding technical requirements for automated teller machines and fare machines.

 

The codes expert also identified 14 revisions that are expected to have monetary impacts on the new construction and alterations of facilities.  An independent cost estimator prepared cost estimates for these revisions using standard industry procedures.  The revisions that are expected to have monetary impacts on the new construction and alterations of facilities are summarized in Table ES.2. 

 

Table ES.2 - Revisions with Monetary Impacts on

New Construction and Alterations (text version)

 

 

Final Revised Guidelines

 

 

Current Guidelines

 

International Building Code

 

 

Unit Cost

Where circulation path directly connects assembly seating area and performing area, accessible route required to directly connect both areas.

Accessible route required to connect assembly seating area and performing area.

IBC 2000 & 2003 have equivalent requirement to final revised guidelines.

Will vary from $0 to $15,674 depending on specific design of facility.

Where platform lift serves as part of accessible means of egress, standby power required.

No requirement.

IBC 2003 has equivalent requirement to final revised guidelines.

Will vary from $0 to $2,353 depending on specific design of facility.

One in every 6 accessible parking spaces required to be van accessible.

One in every 8 accessible parking spaces required to be van accessible.

IBC 2003 has equivalent requirement to final revised guidelines.

$75 to $344

 

 

Toilet rooms with 6 or more toilet compartments, or combination of 6 or more water closets and urinals, required to provide ambulatory accessible toilet compartment with grab bars.

Toilet rooms with 6 or more toilet compartments required to provide ambulatory accessible toilet compartment with grab bars.

IBC 2000 & 2003 have equivalent requirement to final revised guidelines.

$145

 

Private facilities required to provide public TTY in building with 4 or more public telephones, and on floor with 4 or more public telephones.

 

Government facilities required to provide public TTY in building with public telephone, and on floor with public telephone.

 

Private and government facilities required to provide public TTY in bank of 4 or more public telephones.  Banks of public telephones located within 200 feet of, and on same floor as, another bank of telephones with public TTY exempt.

 

Private and government facilities required to provide public TTY on exterior site with 4 or more public telephones.

 

Bus or rail stations with public telephone at entrance required to provide public TTY.

 

Public rest stops with public telephone required to provide public TTY.

Private facilities with 4 or more public telephones required to provide public TTY.

 

Government facilities with public telephone in public use area of building required to provide public TTY.

 

Rail stations with 4 or more public telephones at entrance required to provide public TTY.

IBC 2000 (Appendix E) has equivalent requirement to final revised guidelines for private facilities.

 

IBC 2003 (Appendix E) has equivalent requirement to final revised guidelines for private facilities and government facilities.

$2,320

At least one operable window in accessible rooms required to comply with technical requirements for operable parts.  Hotel guest rooms that are not required to provide mobility features and dwelling units are exempt.

No requirement.

IBC2000 & 2003 have equivalent requirement to final revised guidelines for certain occupancies.

$505

Two-way communication systems at entrances required to provide audible and visual signals.

No requirement.

 

 

$1,392

Automatic doors serving accessible means of egress required to provide maneuvering clearance or to have standby power.

No requirement.

 

$2,353

Doors on platform lifts required to be power operated.  Platform lifts serving only 2 landings and with self-closing doors on opposite sides exempt.

Doors required to provide maneuvering clearance or to be power operated.

IBC 2000 & 2003 have equivalent requirement to final revised guidelines.

Will vary from $0 to $569 depending on specific design of facility.

Minimum clearance at water closet in accessible single user toilet rooms: 60 x 56 inches.

Minimum clearance at water closet in accessible single user toilet rooms based on approach:

Forward: 48 x 60 inches;

Parallel: 48 X 56 inches;

Both forward and parallel: 60 x 56 inches.

IBC 2000 & 2003 have equivalent requirement to final revised guidelines, except for dwelling units.

$286 for dwelling units

 

$667 for other facilities

Shower spray unit with on-off control required in bathtubs and shower compartments in accessible toilet and bathing rooms.

Shower spray unit required in bathtubs and shower compartments in accessible toilet and bathing rooms.

 

$161

Minimum clearance between opposing base cabinets, counter tops, appliances, or walls in accessible galley kitchens where two entries not provided: 60 inches.  Kitchens without cooktop or conventional range exempt.

Minimum clearance between opposing base cabinets, counter tops, appliances, or walls in accessible galley kitchens: 40 inches.

 

$993

Comparable vanity counter top space required in hotel guest rooms with mobility features.

No requirement.

 

$752

Two percent of dwelling units in Federal, State, and local government housing required to provide communication features.

No requirement.

 

$96 for visual signal if door bell and peephole provided.

 

$322 for doorbell with visual signal and peephole.

 

$353 for TTY connection if voice communication system provided at entrance.

 

Office buildings, hotels, hospitals and nursing homes, and Federal, State, and local government housing will be affected by many of the revisions in Table ES.2, and are likely to experience relatively higher costs than other facilities.  The assessment estimates the national costs of the revisions for the construction of these facilities. The national costs are summarized in Table ES.3.   

 

Table ES.3 – National Costs for Facilities Likely

to Experience Relatively Higher Costs (text version)

 

Facility

 

National Costs Compared To

Current Guidelines

Upper Bound

International Building Code

Lower Bound

Office Buildings

$1.5 million

$0.7 million

Hotels

$6.2 million

$4.1 million

Hospitals & Nursing Homes

$13.6 million

$2.4 – $2.9 million

Government Housing

$5.4 million

$5.4 million

Total

$26.7 million

$12.6 - $13.1 million

 

The assessment also estimates the additional costs of the revisions for individual facilities as a percentage of total construction costs as shown in Table ES.4.

 

Table ES.4 – Additional Costs for Individual Facilities (text version)

 

 

Facility

Additional Costs as Percentage of Total Construction Costs Compared to

Current Guidelines

Upper Bound

International Building Code

Lower Bound

Office Buildings

0.02 to 0.10   %

0.01 to 0.08  %

Hotels

0.06 to 0.50   %

0.04 to 0.30  %

Hospitals & Nursing Homes

0.02   %

0.00  %

Government Housing

0.01  %

0.01 %

 

The final revised guidelines will affect the new construction and alterations of other types of facilities.  Industry reports estimate $152 billion of non-residential building construction projects were started in 2002; and government reports estimate $264 billion of non-residential building construction work and $6 billion of Federal, State and local government housing construction work was installed in 2002.  In order to be considered an economically significant regulatory action with an annual effect on the economy of $100 million or more, the final revised guidelines would need to have impacts ranging from 0.04 percent to 0.07 percent of industry and government construction estimates.  The final revised guidelines will have impacts within or above this range on office buildings and hotels, and it is likely that the impacts on some other facilities will be within or above this range.   Although the impacts are not significant for an individual facility, when added together across the economy the impacts can be economically significant.  Because an extremely low threshold of impacts on individual facilities can render the final revised guidelines economically significant, and because the benefits of the final revised guidelines are unquantifiable but substantial, the Board has classified the final revised guidelines as an economically significant regulatory action.

 

The final revised guidelines will also affect leased postal facilities. When the United States Postal Service enters into a new lease for a postal facility, including previously occupied space, it will have to comply with the accessibility requirements in the final revised guidelines for facilities leased by Federal agencies, including providing accessible customer service counters and van accessible parking spaces.  The United States Postal Service leases 27,000 postal facilities, and estimates that it will cost $9,234 per facility to comply with the final revised guidelines.  The United States Postal Service enters into an average of 1,661 new leases per year for postal facilities, and estimates it will cost $15.3 million annually for leased postal facilities to comply with the final revised guidelines.

 

On the basis of this assessment, the Access Board certifies that the final revised guidelines are not expected to have a significant economic impact on the new construction and alterations of facilities by a substantial number of small entities for purposes of the Regulatory Flexibility Act.  The final revised guidelines will add 0.01 to 0.5 percent to the total construction costs of facilities compared to the current guidelines; and 0.00 to 0.3 percent to the total construction costs of facilities compared to the International Building Code.  These impacts are not significant for an individual facility.

 



CHAPTER 1: 
BACKGROUND

1.0  Introduction

 

Executive Order 12866 requires Federal agencies to submit certain regulatory actions to the Office of Management and Budget for review.  The agency must provide the Office of Management and Budget the text of the regulatory action, together with an assessment of the impacts of the regulatory action.  The assessment must describe the need for the regulatory action and how the regulatory action will meet that need.  The assessment must also explain how the regulatory action is consistent with statutory mandates, promotes the President’s priorities, and avoids undue interference with State, local, and tribal governments in the exercise of their governmental functions.   The Access Board prepared this assessment of the final revised accessibility guidelines for the Americans with Disabilities Act and Architectural Barriers Act to meet the requirements of Executive Order 12866.

1.1  Statutory Authority

 

The Access Board is required by statute to establish and maintain minimum guidelines to ensure that facilities covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act and Architectural Barriers Act are accessible, in terms of architecture and design and communication, to individuals with disabilities.[1]  These guidelines serve as the basis for enforceable standards issued by other agencies under the Americans with Disabilities Act and Architectural Barriers Act.  The requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act and Architectural Barriers Act with respect to facilities are explained below.

 

Americans with Disabilities Act

 

The Americans with Disabilities Act was enacted in 1990 based upon the Congress finding that:

 

“individuals with disabilities continually encounter various forms of discrimination, including . . . the discriminatory effects of architectural, transportation, and communication barriers.”[2] 

 

The purpose of the Americans with Disabilities Act is:

 

“to provide clear, strong, consistent, and enforceable standards addressing

discrimination against individuals with disabilities [and] to ensure that the

Federal government plays a central role in enforcing the standards.”[3] 

 

The Americans with Disabilities Act requires newly constructed State and local government facilities, places of public accommodation, and commercial facilities to be accessible to individuals with disabilities.[4]  The Americans with Disabilities Act also requires parts of existing facilities that are altered to be accessible.[5] 

 

Two agencies are responsible for issuing enforceable standards for facilities covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act. 

 

 

 

Architectural Barriers Act

 

The Architectural Barriers Act was enacted in 1968 to provide individuals with disabilities access to facilities financed by the Federal government.  The Architectural Barriers Act covers facilities constructed, altered, or leased by the Federal government.[8]  The Architectural Barriers Act also covers facilities constructed or altered with a Federal grant or loan, where the law authorizing the grant or loan authorizes the administering agency to issue design or construction standards; and facilities constructed by the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority.[9] 

 

Four agencies are responsible for issuing enforceable standards for facilities covered by the Architectural Barriers Act. 

 

 

1.2  Current Guidelines and Standards

 

MGRAD and UFAS

 

In 1982, the Access Board issued the Minimum Guidelines and Requirements for Accessible Design (MGRAD) to assist the Department of Housing and Urban Development, Department of Defense, United States Postal Service, and General Services Administration in establishing a consistent set of enforceable standards.[14]  These four agencies in turn issued the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) in 1984 as the enforceable standards for facilities covered by the Architectural Barriers Act.[15] 

 

ADAAG

 

In 1991, the Access Board issued the Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) to assist the Department of Justice and Department of Transportation in establishing a consistent set of enforceable standards.[16]  ADAAG is modeled on UFAS.  ADAAG includes provisions for features and facilities that are not addressed in UFAS.  For example, ADAAG has provisions for van accessible parking spaces, public TTYs, automated teller machines, and transportation facilities.  UFAS does not address these features or facilities.  The Access Board prepared a regulatory assessment for ADAAG when the guidelines were initially issued.[17]  The Department of Justice and Department of Transportation adopted ADAAG in 1991 as the enforceable standards for facilities covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act.[18]  The General Services Administration requires Federal agencies to use ADAAG for facilities covered by the Architectural Barriers Act when it provides a greater level of access compared to UFAS.[19] 
 

Children’s Facilities Guidelines

 

In 1998, the Access Board amended ADAAG by adding guidelines for children’s facilities.[20]  These guidelines add child-sized alternatives to the existing adult dimensions that can be used when designing building elements for children.  The Access Board did not prepare a regulatory assessment for the children’s facilities guidelines because they do not establish any new requirements.  The children’s facilities guidelines have not been adopted by the Department of Justice or Department of Transportation. 

 

State and Local Government Facilities Guidelines

 

In 1998, the Access Board also amended ADAAG by adding guidelines for judicial facilities, and detention and correctional facilities.[21]  These guidelines address certain areas within court rooms such as raised judges’ benches, and within jails and prisons such as the number of cells required to provide mobility features.[22]  The Access Board did not prepare a regulatory assessment for the State and local government facilities guidelines because they do not impose any significant impacts on State and local government facilities.[23]  The State and local government facilities guidelines have not been adopted by the Department of Justice or Department of Transportation. 

 

Play Areas Guidelines

 

In 2000, the Access Board amended ADAAG by adding guidelines for play areas used by children.[24]  These guidelines address access to ground level and elevated play components, and ground surfaces.  The Access Board prepared a regulatory assessment for the play areas guidelines.[25]  The play areas guidelines have not been adopted by the Department of Justice or Department of Transportation. 

 

Recreation Facilities Guidelines

 

In 2002, the Access Board amended ADAAG by adding guidelines for recreation facilities.[26]  These guidelines address access to amusement rides, boating and fishing facilities, golf courses, miniature golf courses, exercise equipment, bowling lanes, shooting facilities, and swimming pools and spas.  The Access Board prepared a regulatory assessment for the recreation facilities guidelines.[27]  The recreation facilities guidelines have not been adopted by the Department of Justice or Department of Transportation. 

 

The guidelines for play areas and recreation facilities were developed through separate rulemaking processes that involved advisory committees and regulatory negotiation, and were not part of the present rulemaking to revise the guidelines.  The guidelines for play areas and recreation facilities are incorporated in the final revised guidelines without any substantive changes.

1.3  Need to Revise Guidelines

 

Since the enactment of the Americans with Disabilities Act, accessibility requirements have been increasingly incorporated into the model codes.  State and local governments adopt the model codes to regulate building construction.  The model codes are revised every three years.  The model codes reference the ICC/ANSI A117.1 Standard on Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities for technical requirements.  The ICC/ANSI A117.1 standard is revised every five years.

 

Federal accessibility requirements need to keep pace with the model codes and standards as they are revised.  The Access Board has revised the guidelines for the Americans with Disabilities Act and Architectural Barriers Act to harmonize the guidelines with the model codes and standards in order to achieve greater consistency and uniformity in accessibility requirements at the Federal, State, and local government levels.  The Access Board has also revised the guidelines to ensure that Federal facilities provide the same level of accessibility as State and local government facilities, and private facilities.

1.4  Rulemaking History

 

The Access Board established the ADAAG Review Advisory Committee in 1994 to recommend revisions to the guidelines.  The advisory committee consisted of 22 organizations representing model codes and standards groups, State and local governments, the building and construction industry, and individuals with disabilities.[28]  The advisory committee issued its report, “Recommendations for a New ADAAG,” in 1996.  The Access Board used the advisory committee’s report to develop a proposed rule that was published in 1999.[29]  Public hearings were held on the proposed rule in Los Angeles and Washington, DC.  Information meetings were also held in Washington, D.C. to hear from industry and disability groups on issues regarding automated teller machines, reach ranges, and captioning equipment for movie theaters.  Throughout the rulemaking process, the Access Board worked collaboratively with the International Code Council and ANSI A117 Committee to harmonize the guidelines with the new International Building Code, which was first issued in 2000 and revised in 2003; and the ICC/ANSI A117.1 standard, which was revised in 1998 and 2003.  The Access Board released a draft of the final revised guidelines in April 2002 to further promote harmonization with the model codes and standards.[30]

1.5  Final Revised Guidelines   

 

The final revised guidelines consist of three parts which are published as separate appendices to 36 C.F.R. Part 1191.

 

 

 

 

Appendix A contains the Table of Contents, and Appendix E contains the List of Figures and Index for the final revised guidelines.

1.6  President’s Priorities

 

On July 26, 2002, President George W. Bush issued a Proclamation on the twelfth anniversary of the Americans with Disabilities Act calling the statute “one of the most compassionate and successful civil rights laws in American history.”  The President committed his Administration to implementing the Americans with Disabilities Act and “removing the barriers that prevent people with disabilities from realizing their full potential and achieving their dreams.”  The final revised guidelines will promote the President’s priorities by improving implementation of the Americans with Disabilities Act’s accessibility requirements.

1.7  Federalism

 

The Americans with Disabilities Act was enacted “to provide clear, strong, consistent, and enforceable standards addressing discrimination against individuals with disabilities [and] to ensure that the Federal Government plays a central role in enforcing the standards.”[31]  The Architectural Barriers Act was enacted to provide individuals with disabilities access to federally financed facilities.  Ensuring the civil rights of groups who have experienced discrimination has long been recognized as a national issue and a proper function of the Federal government. 

The Americans with Disabilities Act recognizes the authority of State and local governments to enact and enforce laws that “provide greater or equal protection for the rights of individuals with disabilities than are afforded by this chapter.”[32] 

 

The final revised guidelines serve as the basis for enforceable standards issued by other Federal agencies under the Americans with Disabilities Act and Architectural Barriers Act. 

The final revised guidelines adhere to the fundamental federalism principles and policy making criteria in Executive Order 13132.  The Access Board consulted with State and local governments throughout the rulemaking process.  State and local governments were represented on the ADAAG Review Advisory Committee, participated in public hearings, and submitted comments on the proposed rule.  The final revised guidelines are harmonized with model codes that are adopted by State and local governments to regulate building construction.

 

Regulations that implement statutory rights that prohibit discrimination on the basis of disability are exempt from the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act, which requires agencies to assess the effects of regulatory actions on State and local governments.[33]
 



CHAPTER 2:  METHODOLOGY

2.0  Baseline

 

Regulatory actions are compared to a baseline to evaluate their potential impacts.  The baseline is a reasonable forecast of what would happen in the absence of the regulatory action.  As explained below, the final revised guidelines are compared to the current guidelines and the International Building Code.  In addition, the final revised guidelines concerning common use circulation paths in employee work areas, accessible means of egress, and visible alarms in hotel guest rooms with communication features are compared to the model fire and life safety codes.

 

Current Guidelines

 

 In the absence of the final revised guidelines, newly constructed and altered facilities covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act would have to comply with ADAAG as initially issued in 1991, which has been adopted as enforceable standards by the Department of Justice and Department of Transportation.[34]  Newly constructed, altered, and leased facilities covered by the Architectural Barriers Act that are subject to standards issued by the General Services Administration are also required to comply with ADAAG, where it provides a greater level of access compared to UFAS. [35] 

 

The final revised guidelines reorganize and renumber ADAAG, and rewrite the text to be clearer and easier to understand.  Most of the scoping and technical requirements in ADAAG have not been changed.  An independent codes expert compared the final revised guidelines and ADAAG to identify revisions that add new features or space to facilities, or present design challenges compared to ADAAG.[36]  The codes expert identified 27 revisions that are expected to have minimal impacts on the new construction and alterations of facilities, which are discussed in Chapter 6; and 14 revisions that are expected to have monetary impacts on the new construction and alterations of facilities, which are discussed in Chapter 7. 

 

Comparing the final revised guidelines to the current guidelines represents the upper bound of the range of potential impacts, and assumes that facilities covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act or Architectural Barriers Act are not required to also comply with equivalent requirements in the International Building Code. 

 

International Building Code

 

The International Building Code was first issued in 2000 and revised in 2003.  The 2000 and 2003 editions of the International Building Code reference the 1998 edition of the ICC/ANSI A117.1 Standard on Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities for technical requirements. 

 

In the absence of the final revised guidelines, newly constructed and altered facilities would have to comply with the International Building Code in jurisdictions where the code has been adopted.  As shown in Table 2.1, the International Building Code has been adopted statewide in 28 States and by local governments in 15 States.[37]  The District of Columbia, the Department of Defense, and the National Park Service have also adopted the International Building Code.  

 

Table 2.1 – State and Local Government Adoption of International Building Code (text version)

 

State

Adopted

Statewide

Adopted by Local Government*

 

State

Adopted

Statewide

Adopted by Local

Government*

Alabama

 

X (20)

Montana

X

 

Alaska

X

 

Nebraska

 

X (10)

Arizona

 

X (33)

Nevada

 

X (5)

Arkansas

X

 

New Hampshire

X

 

California

 

 

New Jersey

X

 

Colorado

 

X (100)

New Mexico

 

X (6)

Connecticut

 

 

New York

X

 

Delaware

 

X (3)

North Carolina

X

 

Florida

 

 

North Dakota

X

 

Georgia

X

 

Ohio

X

 

Hawaii

 

 

Oklahoma

X

 

Idaho

X

 

Oregon

 

 

Illinois

 

X (41)

Pennsylvania

X

 

Indiana

X

 

Rhode Island

 

 

Iowa

 

X (16)

South Carolina

X

 

Kansas

 

X (17)

South Dakota

X

 

Kentucky

X

 

Tennessee

 

X (3)

Louisiana

X

 

Texas

 

X (117)

Maine

 

X (21)

Utah

X

 

Maryland

X

 

Vermont

 

 

Massachusetts

X

 

Virginia

X

 

Michigan

X

 

Washington

X

 

Minnesota

X

 

West Virginia

X

 

Mississippi

 

X (12)

Wisconsin

X

 

Missouri

 

X (39)

Wyoming

X

 

* Number of local governments that have adopted the International Building Code is shown in parenthesis

 

The final revised guidelines are compared to the 2000 and 2003 editions of the International Building Code to identify whether the codes contain equivalent requirements.  Comparing the final revised guidelines to the International Building Code represents the lower bound of the range of potential impacts, and assumes that facilities covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act or Architectural Barriers Act are required to also comply with equivalent requirements in the International Building Code.  The actual impacts will be between the lower and upper bound of the range.

 

Model Fire and Life Safety Codes

 

The final revised guidelines concerning common use circulation paths in employee work areas, accessible means of egress, and visible alarms in hotel guest rooms with communication features are also compared to relevant requirements in the 2003 editions of the NFPA 101, Life Safety Code; NFPA 1, Uniform Fire Code; and International Fire Code.  As shown in Table 2.2, these model codes have been adopted statewide by 48 States.[38]  The other two States, New Jersey and Ohio, have adopted the International Building Code, which contains equivalent requirements to the International Fire Code for means of egress and visible alarms.

 

Table 2.2 - Statewide Adoption of Model Fire and Life Safety Codes (text version)

State

NFPA 101

Life Safety Code

NFPA 1

Uniform Fire Code

International Fire Code

Alabama

X

X

 

Alaska

 

 

X

Arizona

 

X

 

Arkansas

X

 

X

California

 

X

 

Colorado

X

X

 

Connecticut

X

 

 

Delaware

X

 

 

Florida

X

X

 

Georgia

X

 

X

Hawaii

 

X

 

Idaho

 

 

X

Illinois

X

 

 

Indiana

 

X

X

Iowa

X

 

 

Kansas

X

 

 

Kentucky

X

X

 

Louisiana

X

X

 

Maine

X

X

 

Maryland

X

X

 

Massachusetts

X

 

 

Michigan

X

X

X

Minnesota

X

 

X

Mississippi

X

 

 

Missouri

X

 

 

Montana

 

X

 

Nebraska

X

X

 

Nevada

X

X

 

New Hampshire

X

X

 

New Jersey

 

 

 

New Mexico

X

X

 

New York

X

 

X

North Carolina

 

 

X

North Dakota

X

X

 

Ohio

 

 

 

Oklahoma

X

 

X

Oregon

 

X

X

Pennsylvania

 

 

X

Rhode Island

X

X

 

South Carolina

X

 

X

South Dakota

X

X

X

Tennessee

X

X

 

Texas

X

 

 

Utah

X

 

X

Vermont

X

X

 

Virginia

X

 

X

Washington

X

X

X

West Virginia

X

X

 

Wisconsin

X

X

 

Wyoming

X

X

X

2.1  Timing of Impacts

 

The final revised guidelines are not enforceable and will not have any impacts until they are adopted as enforceable standards by the following agencies:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Department of Justice, Department of Transportation, Department of Housing and Urban Development, and General Services Administration will have to conduct notice and comment rulemaking to adopt the final revised guidelines as enforceable standards.[39]  More State and local governments are expected to adopt the International Building Code by the time the final revised guidelines are adopted as enforceable standards by the above agencies, which will further reduce the potential impacts toward the lower bound of the range.

 

2.2  Benefits

 

The Access Board worked collaboratively with the International Code Council and the ANSI A117 Committee to harmonize the final revised guidelines with the 2000 and 2003 editions of the International Building Code and the 1998 and 2003 editions of the ICC/ANSI A117.1 Standard for Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities.  Harmonization will benefit State and local governments, businesses, architects, and individuals with disabilities.  These benefits are discussed in Chapter 3.  The Access Board also revised some of the scoping and technical requirements in ADAAG to reduce the impacts on facilities.  These revisions are discussed in Chapter 5.

 

2.3  Alternatives

 

The regulatory assessment for the proposed rule estimated that the national costs of the rule would be $87.5 million annually for newly constructed office buildings, hotels, and sports stadiums and arenas.  The Access Board adopted alternatives in the final revised guidelines that eliminate these costs.  These alternatives are discussed in Chapter 4.

2.4  New Construction

 

Designing facilities to be accessible from the beginning generally has minimal impacts on the total construction costs.  Most of the scoping and technical requirements do not add new features or space to facilities, but rather require that features commonly provided meet certain specifications so individuals with disabilities are included.  Most designs are produced today with the assistance of computers.  Designers can simply incorporate the specifications into their computer assisted design (CAD) programs.  This assessment focuses on revisions in the final revised guidelines that either add new features or space to facilities, or present design challenges.

 

2.5  Alterations to Existing Facilities

 

There are two general requirements and an exception that apply to alterations to existing facilities:

 

Element or Space Altered – When an element or space is altered, the altered element or space is required to meet the requirements for new construction.[40]  If the circulation path to the altered element or space is not altered, an accessible route is not required to the altered element or space, unless the altered area contains a primary function.

 

Alterations Affecting Primary Function Areas – If the alterations affect or could affect the usability of or access to an area containing a primary function, the Department of Justice and Department of Transportation regulations implementing the Americans with Disabilities Act require the “path of travel” serving the altered area to be made accessible to the extent that the costs do not exceed 20 percent of the costs of the alterations to the primary function area.[41]  A primary function is a major activity for which the facility is intended.[42]  The “path of travel” includes an accessible route that connects the altered area with an exterior approach, and the toilet rooms, public telephones, and drinking fountains serving the altered primary function area.[43]  When the Department of Justice and Department of Transportation adopt the final revised guidelines as enforceable standards, they will address what an entity’s obligations are when elements that are part of the “path of travel” serving an altered primary function area meet earlier standards, and the revised standards change the requirements for the elements.

 

Technical Infeasibility – If it is not technically feasible to comply with a requirement because existing structural conditions would require removing or altering a load-bearing member that is an essential part of the structural frame or because of other existing physical or site constraints, the alteration is required to meet the requirement to the maximum extent feasible.[44]

 

The impacts of the revisions on alterations to existing facilities will be facility specific, and will depend on the elements and spaces that are altered.  For revisions that have monetary impacts, this assessment examines the impacts of the revisions on alterations to existing facilities by answering three questions:

 

 

 

 

This assessment also includes alterations projects when estimating the national costs of the final revised guidelines for office buildings, hotels, hospitals and nursing homes, and Federal, State, and local government housing.  

 

2.6  Readily Achievable Barrier Removal

 

The Americans with Disabilities Act requires places of public accommodation to remove architectural and communication barriers that are structural in nature in existing facilities, where it is readily achievable.[46]  Readily achievable is defined as actions that are “easily accomplishable and able to be carried out without much difficulty or expense.”[47]  The Department of Justice is responsible for issuing regulations to implement the readily achievable “barrier removal” requirement.  When the Department of Justice adopts the final revised guidelines as enforceable standards, it will address what an entity’s obligations are when an element in an existing facility meets earlier standards, and the revised standards change the requirements for the element.  This assessment does not address the impacts of the final revised guidelines on readily achievable “barrier removal” in existing facilities since the Department of Justice will address this issue when it adopts the final revised guidelines as enforceable standards. 

 



CHAPTER 3:  HARMONIZATION BENEFITS

3.0  Introduction

 

The Access Board worked collaboratively with the International Code Council and the ANSI A117 Committee to harmonize the final revised guidelines with the new International Building Code, which was first issued in 2000 and revised in 2003, and the ICC/ANSA A117.1 Standard on Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities, which was revised in 1998 and 2003.  The 2000 and 2003 editions of the International Building Code reference the 1998 edition of the ICC/ANSI A117.1 standard for technical requirements.  As discussed below, harmonization benefits State and local governments, businesses, architects, and individuals with disabilities.   

3.1  State and Local Governments

State and local governments that adopt the model codes and standards want accessibility requirements in the model codes and standards and at the Federal level to be harmonized.  The Americans with Disabilities Act authorizes the Department of Justice to certify State or local codes that meet or exceed Federal accessibility requirements.[48]  State and local governments that adopt the International Building Code will find it easier to have their codes certified, and more State and local governments are expected to submit their codes to the Department of Justice for certification.[49]  In jurisdictions where codes have been certified by the Department of Justice, business owners, builders, developers, and architects can rely on their State or local government building plan approval and inspection processes as a “check-point” for ensuring that their facilities comply with Federal accessibility requirements.  Potential mistakes can be corrected early in the construction process when adjustments can be made easily and inexpensively compared to costly retrofitting after a facility is constructed.  Compliance with a certified code is also evidence of compliance with Federal accessibility requirements in litigation to enforce the Americans with Disabilities Act.[50] 

3.2  Businesses

 

Business owners, builders, and developers want consistent and uniform accessibility requirements adopted by the Federal, State, and local governments.  It is difficult and time consuming for them to deal with different accessibility requirements at each layer of government.  Dealing with different accessibility requirements at the Federal, State, and local levels can also contribute to mistakes requiring costly corrections after the facilities are constructed.    Harmonization of accessibility requirements at the Federal, State, and local levels promotes efficiency and economic growth for businesses.

3.3  Architects

 

Architects who design buildings also want consistent and uniform accessibility requirements adopted by the Federal, State, and local governments.  Architects bear the primary responsibility for designing facilities that meet accessibility requirements and are potentially liable for any mistakes that could result in litigation.  Harmonization of accessibility requirements at the Federal, State, and local levels makes it easier for architects to design accessible facilities and reduces the potential for mistakes and litigation.

3.4  Individuals with Disabilities

 

Individuals with disabilities are the ultimate beneficiaries of harmonization.  The U.S. Census Bureau reports that there are 52.5 million Americans with disabilities in the civilian non-institutionalized population age 5 and over.[51]  Almost one in five individuals has some type of disability.  Among individuals 15 years old and over, 25 million have difficulty walking or using stairs.  Harmonization will result in increased compliance with Federal accessibility requirements in jurisdictions that adopt the model codes and standards, and use their plan approval and inspection processes to check for compliance.  Increased compliance will result in more accessible facilities for individuals with disabilities.

 



CHAPTER 4:  ALTERNATIVES THAT ELIMINATE COSTS ESTIMATED FOR THE PROPOSED RULE
 

4.0  Introduction

 

The regulatory assessment for the proposed rule estimated that the national costs of the rule would be $87.5 million annually for newly constructed office buildings, hotels, and sports stadiums and arenas.[52]  The Access Board adopted alternatives in the final revised guidelines that eliminate these costs.  This chapter discusses the alternatives that were adopted.  The relevant text of the current guidelines, the proposed rule, and the final revised guidelines is presented in tables.  Unless otherwise noted, the current guidelines refer to ADAAG.  Scoping and technical requirements are presented together, where appropriate.  The text of the proposed rule that imposed the cost and the text of the final revised guidelines that eliminates the cost are underlined.  Where a new requirement was included in the proposed rule, but is not included in the final revised guidelines, there is no underlined text in the final revised guidelines.  Equivalent requirements in the International Building Code and the ICC/ANSI A117.1 Standard on Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities are also noted in the tables.[53]

4.1  Office Buildings

 

The proposed rule added a new scoping requirement for visible alarms in employee work areas. The regulatory assessment for the proposed rule estimated the national costs of the revision for newly constructed office buildings would be $16 million annually.  As discussed below, the final revised guidelines eliminate these costs.

 

Visible Alarms in Employee Work Areas

 

Table 4.1 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines, the proposed rule, and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping requirement for visible alarms in employee work areas.

 

Table 4.1 - Visible Alarms in Employee Work Areas (text version)

Current Guidelines

Proposed Rule

Final Revised Guidelines

4.1.1(3)  Areas Used Only by Employees as Work Areas.  Areas that are used only as work areas shall be designed and constructed so that individuals with disabilities can approach, enter, and exit the areas.  These guidelines do not require that any areas used only as work areas be constructed to permit maneuvering within the work area or be constructed or equipped (i.e., with racks or shelves) to be accessible.

 

4.1.3  Accessible Buildings: New Construction.  Accessible buildings and facilities shall meet the following minimum requirements: . . .

 

(14)  If emergency warning systems are provided, then they shall include both audible alarms and visual alarms complying with 4.28. . . .

203.3  Employee Work Areas.  Employee work areas shall be designed and constructed so that individuals with disabilities can approach enter, and exit the employee work areas.  In addition, visual alarm coverage shall be provided where audible alarm coverage is provided in employee work areas.  This part does not require that employee work areas be constructed to permit maneuvering with the employee work area or be constructed or equipped to be accessible.

 

215.1  Fire Alarms.  Where fire alarm systems are provided in public use or common use areas, the alarm shall provide a system with both audible and visual signals complying with 702. . . .

203.9  Employee Work Areas.  Spaces and elements within employee work areas shall only be required to comply with 206.2.8, 207.1, and 215.3 and shall be designed and constructed so that individuals with disabilities can approach, enter, and exit the employee work area. . . .

 

215.1  General.  Where fire alarm systems provide audible alarm coverage, alarms shall comply with 215. . . .

 

215.2  Public and Common Use Areas.  Alarms in public and common use areas shall comply with 702.

 

215.3  Employee Work Areas.  Where employee work areas have audible alarm coverage, the wiring system shall be designed so that visible alarms complying with 702 can be integrated into the alarm system.

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  No requirement for visible alarms in employee work areas.

 

IBC 2003:  Section 907.9.1.2 has an equivalent requirement for visible alarms in employee work areas.

 

The current guidelines require visible alarms to be provided where fire alarm systems are provided, but do not require areas used only by employees as work areas to be equipped with accessibility features.  As applied to office buildings, the current guidelines require visible alarms to be provided in public and common use areas such as conference rooms, break rooms, and restrooms, where fire alarm systems are provided. 

 

The proposed rule required visible alarm coverage to be provided in employee work areas where audible alarm coverage is provided.  Since building codes and fire and life safety codes generally require visible alarms in open-plan office areas, the regulatory assessment for the proposed rule estimated the impact of extending visible alarm coverage to individual offices.  The cost of installing a single 15 candela visible alarm appliance in an individual office was estimated at $270.[54]  A newly constructed office building with 200,000 square feet in area was estimated to require an additional 250 visible alarm appliances, plus additional power supply and circuits for the alarm system, which would increase the construction cost by $65,375.[55]  The regulatory assessment for the proposed rule estimated the national costs of requiring visible alarms in employee work areas would be $16 million annually for 250 newly constructed office buildings.[56]

 

The final revised guidelines eliminate these costs by requiring the alarm wiring system to be designed so that visible alarms can be added when needed to serve employees who are deaf or hard of hearing.  In new construction, alarm systems are typically designed with circuits at 80 percent of their capacity and the alarm wiring is run through the spaces that are provided with alarm coverage.  In typical configurations with offices along both sides of a corridor, or with offices on one side and open-plan work areas on the other side, the alarm wiring is commonly run in line with the corridor.  This design allows for short wiring “runs” to provide audible and visible alarm appliances in the public and common use areas, and open-plan work areas.  This design also places the alarm wiring in a location where it is relatively easy to extend the wiring into an individual office and install a visible alarm appliance when needed.

4.2  Hotels

 

The proposed rule revised the scoping requirement for guest rooms with communication features.  The regulatory assessment for the proposed rule estimated the national costs of the revision for newly constructed hotels would be $31 million annually.  As discussed below, the final revised guidelines eliminate these costs.

 

Guest Rooms with Communication Features

 

Table 4.2 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines, the proposed rule, and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping requirement for guest rooms with communications features.[57]

 

Table 4.2 – Guest Rooms with Communication Features (text version)

Current Guidelines

Proposed Rule

Final Revised Guidelines

9.1.2  Accessible Units, Sleeping Rooms, and Suites.  Accessible sleeping rooms or suites that comply with the requirements of 9.2 (Requirements for Accessible Units, Sleeping Rooms, and Suites) shall be provided in accordance with the table below.  In addition, in hotels of 50 or more sleeping rooms or suites, additional accessible sleeping rooms or suites that include a roll-in shower shall also be provided in conformance with the table below. . . .

 

Number of Rooms

Accessible

Rooms

Rooms with Roll-in

Showers

1 to 25

1

 

26 to 50

2

 

51 to 75

3

1

766 to 100

4

1

101 to 150

5

2

151 to 200

6

2

201 to 300

7

3

301 to 400

8

4

401 to 500

9

 

4 plus 1 for each additional 100 over 400

501 to 1000

2% of total

1001 and over

20 plus 1 for each 100 over 1000

 

9.1.3 Sleeping Accommodations for Persons with Hearing Impairments.  In addition to those accessible sleeping rooms and suites required by 9.1.2, sleeping rooms and suites that comply with 9.3 (Visual Alarms, Notification Devices, and Telephones) shall be provided in conformance with the following table:

 

Number of Elements

Accessible Elements

1 to 25

1

26 to 50

2

51 to 75

3

76 to 100

4

101 to 150

5

151 to 200

6

201 to 300

7

301 to 400

8

401 to 500

9

501 to 1000

2% of total

1001 and over

20 plus 1 for each 100 over 1000

 

9.2.2  Minimum Requirements.  An accessible unit, sleeping room or suite shall be on an accessible route complying with 4.3 and have the following accessible elements and spaces. . . . 

 

(8) Sleeping room accommodations for persons with hearing impairments required by 9.1 and complying with 9.3 shall be provided in the accessible sleeping room or suite.

224.4  Communication Features.  In transient lodging facilities, at least fifty percent, but not less than one, of the total number of guest rooms shall have accessible communication features complying with 806.3.

 

 

224.4  Guest Rooms with Communication Features.  In transient lodging facilities, guest rooms with communication features complying with 806.3 shall be provided in accordance with Table 224.4.

 

Table 224.4 Guest Rooms with Communication Features

 

Total Number of Guest Rooms Provided

Minimum Number of Required Guest Rooms with Communication Features

2 to 25

2

26 to 50

4

51 to 75

7

76 to 100

9

101 to 150

12

151 to 200

14

201 to 300

17

301 to 400

20

401 to 500

22

501 to 1000

5% of total

1001 and over

50, plus 3 for each 100 over 1000

 

224.5  Dispersion. . . . At least one guest room required to provide mobility features complying with 806.2 shall also provide communication features complying with 806.3.  Not more than 10 percent of guest rooms required to provide mobility features complying with 806.2 shall be used to satisfy the minimum number of guest rooms required to provide communication features complying with 806.3.

 

 

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Section 907.9.1.2 and section E1104.3 of Appendix E have equivalent requirements for the number of guest rooms with communication features in facilities with six or more guest rooms. 

 

IBC 2003:  Section 907.9.1.3 and section E104.3 of Appendix E have equivalent requirements for the number of guest rooms with communication features in facilities with six or more guest rooms. 

 

The current guidelines require hotels to provide a minimum number of guest rooms with mobility features based on the total number of guest rooms in the facility.  The current guidelines require an additional minimum number of guest rooms to provide roll-in showers.  All the guest rooms that are required to provide mobility features and roll-in showers are also required to provide communication features for individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing.  The current guidelines also require hotels to provide an additional minimum number of guest rooms with communication features for individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing.

 

The proposed rule required a minimum of 50 percent of the total number of guest rooms to provide communication features.  The regulatory assessment for the proposed rule estimated the cost of providing communication features in a guest room at $556, including $293 for a 110 candela visible alarm appliance and $263 for a notification device.[58]  The proposed rule required a newly constructed hotel with 150 guest rooms to provide a minimum of 75 guest rooms with communication features, compared to a minimum of 12 guest rooms under the current guidelines, which would increase the construction cost by $35,028.[59]  The regulatory assessment for the proposed rule estimated the national costs of increasing the number of guest rooms required to provide communication features to a minimum of 50 percent of the total number of guest rooms would be $31 million annually for 890 newly constructed hotels.[60]

 

The final revised guidelines make no change from the current guidelines with respect to the number of guest rooms required to provide communication features.  The scoping requirement is consolidated into a single table in the final revised guidelines, instead of appearing in three sections as in the current guidelines.  The final revised guidelines also limit the overlap between guest rooms required to provide mobility features and guest rooms required to provide communication features.  At least one, but not more than 10 percent, of the guest rooms required to provide mobility features can also provide communication features.

4.3  Sports Stadiums and Arenas

 

The proposed rule revised the scoping requirements for vertical access, vertical dispersion of wheelchair spaces, companion seats, and designated aisle seats in assembly areas. The regulatory assessment for the proposed rule estimated the national costs of the revisions for newly constructed sports stadiums and arenas would be $40.5 million.  As discussed below, the final revised guidelines eliminate these costs.

 

Vertical Access

 

Table 4.3 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines, the proposed rule, and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping requirement for vertical access.

 

Table 4.3 - Vertical Access (text version)

Current Guidelines

Proposed Rule

Final Revised Guidelines

4.1.3  Accessible Buildings: New Construction.  Accessible buildings and facilities shall meet the following minimum requirements: . . .

 

(5)  One passenger elevator complying with 4.10 shall serve each level, including mezzanines, in all multi-story buildings and facilities unless exempted below.  If more than one elevator is provided, each passenger elevator shall comply with 4.10. . . .

206.2.3  Multi-Level Buildings and Facilities.  Accessible routes shall connect each level, including mezzanines, in multi-level buildings and facilities. . . .

 

221.5  Vertical Access.  Where wheelchair spaces or designated aisle seats share a common accessible route that includes vertical access by means of elevators or platform lifts, elevators or platform lifts shall be provided in such number, capacity, and speed to provide a level of service equivalent to that provided in the same seating area to patrons who can use stairs or other means of vertical access.

206.2.3  Multi-Story Buildings and Facilities.  At least one accessible route shall connect each story and mezzanine in multi-story buildings and facilities. . . .

 

206.6  Elevators.  Elevators provided for passengers shall comply with 407.  Where multiple elevators are provided, each elevator shall comply with 407 . . . .

 

 

 

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Section 1104.4 has an equivalent requirement for accessible routes in multi-story facilities.

 

IBC 2003:  Section 1104.4 has an equivalent requirement for accessible routes in multi-story facilities.

 

The current guidelines require one accessible passenger elevator to serve each level in multi-story facilities, unless an exception applies.  If more than one elevator is provided, each elevator is required to be accessible. 

 

The proposed rule required elevators or platform lifts to be provided to wheelchair spaces and designated aisle seats in sports stadiums and arenas in sufficient number, capacity, and speed so as to provide a level of service equivalent to that provided in the same seating area to patrons who can use stairs.  The regulatory assessment for the proposed rule assumed large sports facilities with 50,000 seats would add 3 more elevators to provide equivalent vertical access to wheelchair spaces and designated aisle seats; medium sports facilities with 20,000 seats would add 2 more elevators; and small sports facilities with 11,000 seats would add 1 more elevator.[61]  The cost of installing a 3-stop hydraulic elevator was estimated at $61,794.[62]  The regulatory assessment for the proposed rule estimated the national costs of requiring equivalent vertical access to wheelchair spaces and designated aisle seats would be $1.5 million annually for 3 large, 5 medium, and 5 small newly constructed sports facilities.[63]

 

The final revised guidelines make no change from the current guidelines with respect to accessible routes in multi-story facilities.

 

Vertical Dispersion of Wheelchair Spaces[64]

 

Table 4.4 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines, the proposed rule, and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping requirement for vertical dispersion of wheelchair spaces in assembly areas.
 

Table 4.4 – Vertical Dispersion of Wheelchair Spaces (text version)

Current Guidelines

Proposed Rule

Final Revised Guidelines

4.33.3  Placement of Wheelchair Locations.  Wheelchair areas . . . shall be provided so as to provide people with physical disabilities a choice of admission prices and lines of sight comparable to those for members of the general public . . . . When the seating capacity exceeds 300, wheelchair spaces shall be provided in more than one location. . . .

802.6.1  Admission Prices.  Wheelchair spaces and designated aisle seats shall be provided in each price level distinguishable by location.

 

802.6.3  Vertical Dispersion.  Wheelchair spaces and designated aisle seats shall be located at varying distances from the performance area on each accessible level and in each balcony or mezzanine that is located along an accessible route.

221.2.3.2  Vertical Dispersion.  Wheelchair spaces shall be dispersed vertically at varying distances from the screen, performance area, or playing field.  In addition, wheelchair spaces shall be located in each balcony or mezzanine that is located on an accessible route. . . .

 

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Section 1107.2.3 has a similar requirement for vertical dispersion of wheelchair spaces. 

 

IBC 2003:  Section 1108.2.4 has a similar requirement for vertical dispersion of wheelchair spaces. 

 

The current guidelines require wheelchair spaces to be located in more than one area where the seating capacity exceeds 300 and to provide a choice of admission prices.  Under the current guidelines, sports facilities typically locate some wheelchair spaces on each accessible level of the facilities.

 

The proposed rule required wheelchair spaces and designated aisle seats to be provided in each price level distinguishable by location, and to be located at varying distances from the performance area on each accessible level and in each balcony or mezzanine that is located along an accessible route.  The regulatory assessment for the proposed rule assumed large sports facilities with 50,000 seats would add an additional upper deck concourse to achieve this level of dispersion, which would increase the construction cost by $11 million, and estimated the national costs would be $33 million annually for 3 newly constructed large sports facilities.[65]  The regulatory assessment for the proposed rule further assumed medium sports facilities with 20,000 seats would add 4 lifts, and small sports facilities with 11,000 seats would add 2 lifts.[66]  The cost of installing a lift was estimated at $14,213, and the national costs would be $0.5 million annually for 5 medium and 5 small newly constructed sports facilities.[67]

 

The final revised guidelines do not require wheelchair spaces to be dispersed based on admission prices because pricing is not always established at the design phase and may vary by event.  Instead of requiring wheelchair spaces to be vertically dispersed on each accessible level, the final revised guidelines require wheelchair spaces to be vertically dispersed at varying distances from the screen, performance area, or playing field.  The final revised guidelines also require wheelchair spaces to be located in each balcony or mezzanine served by an accessible route.  Sports facilities can meet the requirements by locating some wheelchair spaces on each accessible level of the facilities, which is consistent with the current guidelines.

Companion Seats

 

Table 4.5 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines, the proposed rule, and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping and technical requirements for companion seats in assembly areas.

 

Table 4.5 - Companion Seats (text version)

Current Guidelines

Proposed Rule

Final Revised Guidelines

4.33.3  Placement of Wheelchair Locations. . . .  At least one companion fixed seat shall be provided next to each wheelchair seating area. . . .

221.3  Readily Removable Companion Seats.  One readily removable companion seat complying with 802.7 shall be provided for each wheelchair space.  Each required readily removable companion seat shall provide an additional wheelchair space complying with 802.1, 802.2, 802.3, 802.4, 802.5, and 802.9 when removed.

221.3  Companion Seats.  At least one companion seat complying with 802.3 shall be provided for each wheelchair space required by 221.2.1.

 

802.3   Companion Seats.  Companion seats shall comply with 802.3.

 

802.3.1  Alignment.  In row seating, companion seats shall be located to provide shoulder alignment with adjacent wheelchair spaces.  The shoulder alignment point of the wheelchair space shall be measured 36 inches (915mm) from the front of the wheelchair space.  The floor surface of the companion seat shall be the same elevation as the floor surface of the wheelchair space.

 

802.3.2  Type.  Companion seats shall be equivalent in size, quality, comfort, and amenities to the seating in the immediate area.  Companion seats shall be permitted to be movable.

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Section 1107.2.2 has an equivalent requirement for the number of companion seats.

 

IBC 2003:  Section 1108.2.5 has an equivalent requirement for the number of companion seats.

 

The current guidelines require at least one fixed companion seat to be provided next to each wheelchair space. 

 

The proposed rule required companion seats to be designed so the seat can be readily removed and serve as a wheelchair space.  The regulatory assessment for the proposed rule estimated 6 square feet must be added to the companion seat space to make it serve as a wheelchair space; and an anchoring system must be provided to make the seat removable.  These requirements would add $1,315 per seat to the construction cost.[68]  A newly constructed large sports facility with 50,000 seats must provide 501 companion seats, which would add $661,320 to the construction cost.[69]  A newly constructed medium sports facility with 20,000 seats must provide 201 companion seats, which would add $265,320 to the construction cost.[70]  A newly constructed small sports facility with 11,000 seats must provide 111 companion seats, which would add $146,520 to the construction cost.[71]  The regulatory assessment for the proposed rule estimated the national costs for requiring removable companion seats that can also serve as wheelchair spaces would be $4 million annually for 3 large, 5 medium, and 5 small newly constructed sports facilities.

 

The final revised guidelines permit companion seats to be readily removable, but do not require the seats to be designed so they can also serve as wheelchair spaces when removed. 

 

Designated Aisle Seats

 

Table 4.6 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines, the proposed rule, and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping and technical requirements for designated aisle seats in assembly areas.

 

Table 4.6 - Designated Aisle Seats (text version)

Current Guidelines

Proposed Rule

Final Revised Guidelines

4.1.3  Accessible Buildings: New Construction.  Accessible buildings and facilities shall meet the following minimum requirements: . . .

 

(19) Assembly areas.

 

(a) … In addition, one percent but not less than one, of all fixed seats shall be aisle seats with no armrests on the aisle side, or removable or folding armrests on the aisle side.  Each such seat shall be identified by a sign or marker.  Signage notifying patrons of the availability of such seats shall be posted at the ticket office. Aisle seats are not be required to comply with 4.33.4.

221.4  Designated Aisle Seats.  Aisle seats complying with 802.8 shall be provided in all assembly areas.  Signs notifying patrons of the availability of such seats shall be posted at the ticket office.

 

Exception:  Designated aisle seats are not required in luxury boxes, club boxes, or suites.

 

221.4.1  Number.  One designated aisle seat complying with 802.8 per 100 seats, or fraction thereof shall be provided.

221.4.2  Location.  At least one of each four required designated aisle seats shall be located on an accessible route.  All other required designated aisle seats shall be located not more than two rows from an accessible route serving such seats.

 

802.8  Designated Aisle Seats.  Removable or folding armrests or no armrests shall be provided on the aisle side of designated aisle seats.  Each such seat shall be identified by a sign or marker.

 

221.4  Designated Aisle Seats.  At least 5 percent of the total number of aisle seats provided shall comply with 802.4 and shall be the aisle seats located closest to accessible routes. . . .

 

802.4  Designated Aisle Seats.  Designated aisle seats shall comply with 802.4.

 

802.4.1  Armrests.  Where armrests are provided on the seating in the immediate area, folding or retractable armrests shall be provided on the aisle side of the seat.

 

802.4.2  Identification.  Each designated aisle seat shall be identified by a sign or marker.

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  No requirement for designated aisle seats.

 

IBC 2003:  Section 1108.2.6 has an equivalent requirement for the number of designated aisle seats.

 

The current guidelines require 1 percent of fixed seats in assembly areas to be designated aisle seats.  Designated aisle seats must have either no armrests or folding or retractable armrests on the aisle side of the seat.

 

The proposed rule required at least 25 percent of the designated aisle seats to be located on an accessible route, and the rest to be located no more than two rows from an accessible route.  The regulatory assessment for the proposed rule assumed large and medium sports facilities would add accessible routes to comply with this requirement.[72]  The upper deck concourses added to large sports facilities to comply with the proposed rule’s vertical dispersion requirements for wheelchair spaces were assumed to also provide the accessible routes needed to comply with the proposed rule’s designated aisle seat requirements.[73]  The regulatory assessment for the proposed rule further assumed medium sports facilities with 20,000 seats would add 1,500 square feet to provide accessible routes to the designated aisle seats, and would increase the construction cost by $306,000.[74]  The regulatory assessment for the proposed rule estimated the national costs would be $1.5 million annually for 5 medium newly constructed sports facilities.[75]

 

The final revised guidelines base the number of required designated aisle seats on the number of aisle seats, instead of all the seats in a sports facility as the current guidelines do.  At least 5 percent of the aisle seats are required to be designated aisle seats and to be located closest to accessible routes.  This revision will almost always result in fewer aisle seats being designated aisle seats compared to the current guidelines.  Sports facilities typically locate designated aisle seats on, or as near to, accessible routes as permitted by the configuration of the facilities. 

 


 

CHAPTER 5:  REVISIONS THAT REDUCE IMPACTS 

5.0  Introduction

 

This chapter discusses revisions to the scoping and technical requirements that will reduce impacts on the new construction and alterations of facilities.  Some of the revisions will significantly reduce impacts, such as the revised scoping requirements for wheelchair spaces and assistive listening systems in large assembly areas, and the exceptions for accessible routes to small press boxes.  The relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines is presented in tables.  Unless otherwise noted, the current guidelines refer to ADAAG.  The requirements are presented in the order in which they appear in the final revised guidelines.  Scoping and technical requirements are presented together, where appropriate.  The text of the final revised guidelines that will reduce the impacts is underlined.  Where the current guidelines contain related text, it is also underlined.  Equivalent requirements in the International Building Code and the ICC/ANSI A117.1 Standard on Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities are also noted in the tables.[76]

5.1  Limited Access Spaces and Machinery Spaces

 

Table 5.1 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the exceptions for limited access spaces and machinery spaces.

 

Table 5.1 – Limited Access Spaces and Machinery Spaces (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.1.1  Application.  . . .

 

(5)  General Exceptions. . . .

 

(b)  Accessibility is not required to or in: . . .

 

(ii)  non-occupiable spaces accessed only by ladders, catwalks, crawl spaces, very narrow passageways, tunnels, or freight (non-passenger) elevators, and frequented only by service personnel for maintenance, repair, or occasional monitoring of equipment; such spaces may include, but are not limited to, elevator pits, elevator penthouses, piping or equipment catwalks, water or sewage treatment pump rooms and stations, electric substations and transformer vaults, and highway and tunnel facilities; . . .

203.4 Limited Access Spaces.  Spaces accessed only by ladders, catwalks, crawl spaces, or very narrow passageways shall not be required to comply with these requirements or to be on an accessible route.

 

203.5  Machinery Spaces.  Spaces frequented only by service personnel for maintenance, repair, or occasional monitoring of equipment shall not be required to comply with these requirements or to be on an accessible route.  Machinery spaces include, but are not limited to, elevator pits or elevator pent-houses; mechanical, electrical, or communications equipment rooms; piping or equipment catwalks; water or sewage treatment pump rooms and stations; electrical substations and transformer vaults; and highway and traffic tunnel facilities.

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Sections 1103.2.8 and 1103.2.9 have similar exceptions for limited access spaces and machinery spaces.

 

IBC 2003:  Sections 1103.2.8 and 1103.2.9 have similar exceptions for limited access spaces and machinery spaces.

 

The current guidelines contain an exception that exempts “non-occupiable” spaces that have limited means of access, such as ladders or very narrow passageways, and that are visited only by service personnel for maintenance, repair, or occasional monitoring of equipment from all accessibility requirements.  The final revised guidelines expand this exception by removing the condition that the exempt spaces be “non-occupiable,” and by separating the other conditions into two independent exceptions: one for spaces with limited means of access, and the other for machinery spaces.  More spaces are exempted by these exceptions to the final revised guidelines.

 

5.2  Operable Parts[77]

 

Table 5.2 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping and technical requirements for operable parts.

 

Table 5.2 – Operable Parts (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.1.3  Accessible Buildings: New Construction.  Accessible buildings and facilities shall meet the following minimum requirements: . . .

 

(13)  Controls and operating mechanisms in accessible spaces, along accessible routes, or as parts of accessible elements (for example, light switches and dispenser controls) shall comply with 4.27.

 

4.27.3  Height.  The highest operable part of controls, dispensers, receptacles, and other operable equipment shall be placed within at least one of the reach ranges specified in 4.2.5 and 4.2.6.  Electrical and communications systems receptacles on walls shall be mounted no less than 15 in (380 mm) above the floor.

Exception:  These requirements do not apply where the use of special equipment dictates otherwise or where electrical and communica-tions systems receptacles are not normally intended for use by building occupants.

 

4.27.4  Operation.  Controls and operating mechanisms shall be operable with one hand and shall not require tight grasping, pinching, or twisting of the wrist.  The force required to activate controls shall be no greater than 5 lbf (22.5N).

205.1  General.  Operable parts on accessible elements, accessible routes, and in accessible rooms and spaces shall comply with 309.

Exceptions: 1.  Operable parts that are intended for use only by service or maintenance personnel shall not be required to comply with 309.

2.  Electrical or communication receptacles serving a dedicated use shall not be required to comply with 309.

3.  Where two or more outlets are provided in a kitchen above a length of counter top that is uninterrupted by a sink or appliance, one outlet shall not be required to comply with 309.

4.  Floor electrical receptacles shall not be required to comply with 309.

5.  HVAC diffusers shall not be required to comply with 309.

6.  Except for light switches, where redundant controls are provided for a single element, one control in each space shall not be required to comply with 309. . . .

 

309.3  Height.  Operable parts shall be placed within one or more of the reach ranges specified in 308.

 

309.4  Operation.  Operable parts shall be operable with one hand and shall not require tight grasping, pinching, or twisting of the wrist.  The force required to activate operable parts shall be 5 pounds (22.2 N) maximum.

Exception:  Gas pump nozzles shall not be required to provide operable parts that have an activating force of 5 pounds (22.2 N) maximum.

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Section 1108.13 has an equivalent requirement for operable parts, but no exceptions.  Section 1103.2.12 exempts gas pumps from accessibility requirements.

 

IBC 2003:  Section 1109.13 has an equivalent requirement for operable parts and equivalent exceptions.  Section 1103.2.14 requires operable parts on gas pumps to comply with the technical requirement for height. 

 

The current guidelines and the final revised guidelines require operable parts on accessible elements, along accessible routes, and in accessible rooms and spaces to comply with the technical requirements for operable parts, including height and operation.  The current guidelines contain an exception that exempts “special equipment [that] dictates otherwise,” and electrical and communications systems receptacles not intended for use by building occupants from the technical requirement for height.  The final revised guidelines divide this exception into three new exceptions covering operable parts intended only for use by service or maintenance personnel; electrical or communication receptacles serving a dedicated use; and floor electrical receptacles.  Operable parts covered by these new exceptions are exempt from all the technical requirements for operable parts.  The final revised guidelines add new exceptions that exempt certain outlets at kitchen counters; HVAC diffusers; and redundant controls provided for a single element, other than light switches, from the technical requirements for operable parts.  The final revised guidelines also exempt gas pump nozzles from the technical requirement for activating force.

 

5.3  Accessible Routes from Site Arrival Points and Within Sites

 

Table 5.3 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping requirements for accessible routes from site arrival points and within sites.

 

Table 5.3 – Accessible Routes from Site Arrival Points and Within Sites (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.1.2  Accessible Sites and Exterior Facilities: New Construction.  An accessible site shall meet the following minimum requirements:

 

(1)  At least one accessible route complying with 4.3 shall be provided within the boundary of the site from public transportation stops, accessible parking spaces, passenger loading zones if provided, and public streets or sidewalks, to an accessible building entrance.

 

(2)  At least one accessible route complying with 4.3 shall connect accessible buildings, accessible facilities, accessible elements, and accessible spaces that are on the same site.

 

 

206.2.1  Site Arrival Points.  At least one accessible route shall be provided within the site from accessible parking spaces and accessible passenger loading zones; public streets and sidewalks; and public transportation stops to the accessible building or facility entrance they serve.

Exceptions: . . .

2.  An accessible route shall not be required between site arrival points and the building or facility entrance if the only means of access between them is a vehicular way not providing pedestrian access.

 

206.2.2  Within a Site.  At least one accessible route shall connect accessible buildings, accessible facilities, accessible elements, and accessible spaces that are on the same site.

Exception:  An accessible route shall not be required between accessible buildings, accessible facilities, accessible elements, and accessible spaces if the only means of access between them is a vehicular way not providing pedestrian access.

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Sections 1104.1 and 1104.2 have equivalent requirements for accessible routes from site arrival points and within sites, and an equivalent exception for vehicular ways within sites.

 

IBC 2003:  Sections 1104.1 and 1104.2 have equivalent requirements for accessible routes from site arrival points and within sites, and equivalent exceptions for vehicular ways from site arrival points and within sites.

 

The current guidelines and the final revised guidelines require at least one accessible route to be provided from site arrival points to an accessible building entrance, and at least one accessible route to connect accessible facilities on the same site.  The final revised guidelines add two new exceptions that exempt site arrival points and accessible facilities within a site from the accessible route requirements where the only means of access between them is a vehicular way that does not provide pedestrian access.

5.4  Accessible Routes to Tiered Dining Areas in Sports Facilities

 

Table 5.4 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping requirement for accessible routes to dining areas.

 

Table 5.4 – Accessible Routes to Dining Areas (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.1.3  Accessible Buildings: New Construction.  Accessible buildings and facilities shall meet the following minimum requirements:

 

(1)  At least one accessible route complying with 4.3 shall connect accessible building or facility entrances with all accessible spaces and elements within the building or facility.

 

5.4  Dining Areas.  In new construction, all dining areas, including raised or sunken dining areas, loggias, and outdoor seating areas shall be accessible. . . .

206.2.5  Restaurants and Cafeterias.  In restaurants and cafeterias, an accessible route shall be provided to all dining areas, including raised or sunken dining areas, and outdoor dining areas.

 

Exceptions: . . .

3.  In sports facilities, tiered dining areas providing seating required to comply with 221 shall be required to have accessible routes serving at least 25 percent of the dining area provided that accessible routes serve seating complying with 221and each tier is provided with the same services.

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Section 1107.2.5 has an equivalent requirement for accessible routes to dining areas, but no exception for tiered dining areas in sports facilities.

 

IBC 2003:  Section 1108.2.9 has an equivalent requirement for dining areas and an equivalent exception for tiered dining areas in sports facilities.

 

The current guidelines and the final revised guidelines require an accessible route to be provided to all dining areas, including raised or sunken dining areas.  The final revised guidelines add a new exception for tiered dining areas in sports facilities.  Dining areas in sports facilities are typically integrated into the seating bowl and are tiered to provide adequate lines of sight.  The new exception requires an accessible route to be provided to at least 25 percent of the tiered dining areas in sports facilities.  Each tier must have the same services and the accessible route must serve the accessible seating.

5.5  Accessible Routes to Press Boxes

 

Table 5.5 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping requirement for accessible routes to press boxes.

 

Table 5.5 – Accessible Routes to Press Boxes (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.1.1  Application.

(1)  General.  All areas of newly designed or newly constructed buildings and facilities and altered portions of existing buildings and facilities shall comply with section 4, unless otherwise provided in this section or as modified in a special application section.

 

4.1.3  Accessible Buildings: New Construction.  Accessible buildings and facilities shall meet the following minimum requirements:

 

(1)  At least one accessible route complying with 4.3 shall connect accessible building or facility entrances with all accessible spaces and elements within the building or facility.

206.2.7  Press Boxes.  Press boxes in assembly areas shall be on an accessible route.

Exceptions: 1.  An accessible route shall not be required to press boxes in bleachers that have points of entry at only one level provided that the aggregate area of all press boxes is 500 square feet (46 m2) maximum.

2.  An accessible route shall not be required to free-standing press boxes that are elevated above grade 12 feet (3660 mm) minimum provided that the aggregate area of all press boxes is 500 square feet (46 m2) maximum.

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  No requirement for accessible routes to press boxes.

 

IBC 2003:  Section 1104.3.2 has an equivalent requirement for accessible routes to press boxes and equivalent exceptions for small press boxes.

 

The current guidelines require all areas of newly constructed facilities to be accessible, and an accessible route to connect accessible entrances with all accessible spaces and elements within the facility.  The final revised guidelines add two new exceptions that exempt small press boxes that are located on bleachers with entrances on only one level, and small press boxes that are free-standing structures elevated more than 12 feet, from the accessible route requirement when the aggregate area of all press boxes in a sports facility does not exceed 500 square feet.  These new exceptions significantly reduce the impacts on high school sports facilities.

5.6  Shower and Sauna Doors in Hotel Guest Rooms

 

Table 5.6 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping requirement for doors in hotel guest rooms.

 

Table 5.6 – Shower and Sauna Doors in Hotel Guest Rooms (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

9.4  Other Sleeping Rooms and Suites.  Doors and doorways designed to allow passage into and within all sleeping units or other covered units shall comply with 4.13.5.

206.5.3  Transient Lodging Facilities.  In transient lodging facilities, entrances, doors, and doorways providing user passage into and within guest rooms that are not required to provide mobility features complying with 806.2 shall comply with 404.2.3.

Exception:  Shower and sauna doors in guest rooms that are not required to provide mobility features complying with 806.2 shall not be required to comply with 404.2.3.

 

224.1.2  Guest Room Doors and Doorways.  Entrances, doors, and doorways providing user passage into and within guest rooms that are not required to provide mobility features complying with 806.2 shall comply with 404.2.3.

Exception:  Shower and sauna doors in guest rooms that are not required to provide mobility features complying with 806.2 shall not be required to comply with 404.2.3.

Model Codes & Standards

No requirement for doors in guest rooms that are not required to provide mobility features.

 

The current guidelines and the final revised guidelines require doors in hotel guest rooms that do not provide mobility features to have at least 32 inches clear width.[78]  The final revised guidelines add a new exception that exempts shower and sauna doors from the requirement.

5.7  Limited-Use/Limited-Application Elevators and Private Residence Elevators

 

Table 5.7 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping requirements for elevators.

 

Table 5.7 – Limited-Use/Limited-Application Elevators and Private Residence Elevators (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.1.3  Accessible Buildings: New Construction.  Accessible buildings and facilities shall meet the following minimum requirements: . . . 

 

(5)  One passenger elevator complying with 4.10 shall serve each level, including mezzanines, in all multistory buildings and facilities unless exempted below. . . .

Exception 1:  Elevators are not required in:

(a)  private facilities that are less than three stories or that have less than 3000 square feet per story unless the building is a shopping center, a shopping mall, or the professional office of a health care provider, or another type of facility as determined by the Attorney General; or

 (b)  public facilities that are less than three stories and that are not open to the general public if the story above or below the accessible ground floor houses no more than five persons and is less than 500 square feet . . . .

 

In new construction, if a building or facility is eligible for exemption but a passenger elevator is nonetheless planned, that elevator shall meet the requirements of 4.10 and shall serve each level in the building. . . .

206.2.3  Multi-Story Buildings and Facilities.  At least one accessible route shall connect each story and mezzanine in multi-story buildings and facilities.

Exceptions: 1.  In private buildings or facilities that are less than three stories or that have less than 3000 square feet per story (279 m²), an accessible route shall not be required to connect stories provided the building or facility is not a shopping center, a shopping mall, the professional office of a health care provider, a terminal, depot or other station used for specified public transportation, an airport passenger terminal, or another type of facility as determined by the Attorney General.

2.  Where a two story public building or facility has one story with an occupant load of five or fewer persons that does not contain public use space, that story shall not be required to be connected to the story above or below. . . .

 

206.6  Elevators.  Elevators provided for passengers shall comply with 407. . . .

Exceptions: 1.  In a building or facility permitted to use the exceptions to 206.2.3 or permitted by 206.7 to use a platform lift, elevators complying with 408 shall be permitted.

2. Elevators complying with 408 or 409 shall be permitted in multi-story residential dwelling units.

 

[Note: Section 408 contains technical requirements for limited-use/limited-application (LULA) elevators.  Section 409 contains technical requirements for private residence elevators.]

    Model Codes & Standards  

IBC 2000:  No exception permitting LULA elevators.  Section 1107.5.4 requires Type A dwelling units to comply with the ICC/ANSI A117.1-1998 standard, which contains technical requirements for private residence elevators in Type A dwelling units.

 

IBC 2003:  No exception permitting LULA elevators.  Section 1107.2 requires Type A dwelling units to comply with the ICC/ANSI A117.1-1998 standard, which contains technical requirements for private residence elevators in Type A dwelling units.

 

The current guidelines and the final revised guidelines include exceptions to the scoping requirement for accessible routes that exempt certain facilities from connecting each story with an elevator.  If a facility is exempt from the scoping requirement, but nonetheless installs an elevator, the current guidelines require the elevator to comply with the technical requirements for passenger elevators.  The final revised guidelines add a new exception that allows a facility that is exempt from the scoping requirement to install a limited-use/limited-application (LULA) elevator.  LULA elevators are typically less expensive than passenger elevators, and are suitable for low-traffic, low-rise facilities.  LULA elevators are also permitted as an alternative to platform lifts.  The final revised guidelines also add a new exception that permits private residence elevators in multi-story dwelling units.  The final revised guidelines contain technical requirements for LULA elevators and private residence elevators.

 

5.8  Platform Lifts in Hotel Guest Rooms and Dwelling Units

 

Table 5.8 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping requirement for platform lifts.

 

Table 5.8 – Platform Lifts in Hotel Guest Rooms and Dwelling Units (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.1.3  Accessible Buildings: New Construction.  Accessible buildings and facilities shall meet the following minimum requirements: . . . 

 

(5)  One passenger elevator complying with 4.10 shall serve each level, including mezzanines, in all multistory buildings and facilities unless exempted below. . . .

Exception 4:  Platform lifts (wheelchair lifts) complying with 4.11 of this guideline and applicable State or local codes may be used in lieu of an elevator only under the following conditions:

 

[Note: No exceptions for hotel guest rooms and dwelling units.]

206.7  Platform Lifts.  . . . Platform lifts shall be permitted as a component of an accessible route in new construction in accordance with 206.7.  . . .

 

206.7.6  Guest Rooms and Residential Dwelling Units.  Platform lifts shall be permitted to connect levels within transient lodging guest rooms required to provide mobility features complying with 806.2 or residential dwelling units required to provide mobility features complying with 809.2 through 809.4.

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Section 1108.7 has an equivalent requirement permitting platform lifts in dwelling units.  

 

IBC 2003:  Section 1109.7 has an equivalent requirement permitting platform lifts in hotel guest rooms and dwelling units.

 

The current guidelines and the final revised guidelines limit the places where platform lifts are permitted to be used as part of an accessible route in new construction.  The final revised guidelines add a new scoping requirement that permits platform lifts to be used in hotel guest rooms and dwelling units with mobility features.

5.9  Parking Spaces[79]

 

Table 5.9 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping requirements for parking spaces.

 

Table 5.9 – Parking Spaces (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.1.2  Accessible Sites and Exterior Facilities: New Construction.  An accessible site shall meet the following minimum requirements: . . .

 

(5)(a)  If parking spaces are provided for self-parking by employees or visitors, or both, then accessible parking spaces complying with 4.6 shall be provided in each such parking area in conformance with the table below.  . . .

 

(7)  Building Signage: . . . Elements and spaces of accessible facilities which shall be identified by the International Symbol of Accessibility and which shall comply with 4.30.7 are:

 

(a)  Parking spaces designated as reserved for individuals with disabilities; . . . 

208.1  General.  Where parking spaces are provided, parking spaces shall be provided in accordance with 208.

Exception:  Parking spaces used exclusively for buses, trucks, other delivery vehicles, law enforcement vehicles, or vehicular impound shall not be required to comply with 208 provided that lots accessed by the public are provided with a passenger loading zone complying with 503.

 

216.5  Parking.  Parking spaces complying with 502 shall be identified by signs complying with 502.6

Exceptions: 1.  Where a total of four or fewer parking spaces, including accessible parking spaces, are provided on a site, identification of accessible parking spaces shall not be required.

2.  In residential facilities, where parking spaces are assigned to specific residential dwelling units, identification of accessible parking spaces shall not be required.

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Section 1106.1 has an equivalent requirement for the number of accessible parking spaces, but no exception.  Section 1109.1 has an equivalent requirement for identification of accessible parking spaces and a similar exception for sites with few parking spaces.

 

IBC 2003:  Section 1106.1 has an equivalent requirement for the number of accessible parking spaces and a similar exception.  Section 1109.1 has an equivalent requirement for identification of accessible parking spaces and an equivalent exception for sites with few parking spaces.

 

Where parking spaces are provided, the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines require a certain number of the parking spaces to be accessible.  The final revised guidelines add a new exception that exempts parking spaces used exclusively for buses, trucks, delivery vehicles, law enforcement vehicles, or for purposes of vehicular impound from the scoping requirement for parking spaces.  If a lot containing parking spaces for these vehicles is used by the public, the lot is required to have an accessible passenger loading zone. 

 

The current guidelines and the final revised guidelines require accessible parking spaces to be identified by signs that display the International Symbol of Accessibility.  The final revised guidelines add two new exceptions that exempt accessible parking spaces from the signage requirement.  The first exception exempts sites that have four or less parking spaces from the signage requirement.  This exception will reduce the impacts on small businesses.  The second exception exempts residential facilities where parking spaces are assigned to specific dwelling units from the signage requirement.

5.10     Passenger Loading Zones at Medical Care and Long-Term Care Facilities[80]

 

Table 5.10 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping requirement for passenger loading zones at medical care and long-term care facilities.

 

Table 5.10 – Passenger Loading Zones at Medical Care and Long-Term Care Facilities (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

6.1 General.  Medical care facilities included in this section are those in which people receive physical and medical treatment or care and where persons may need assistance in responding to an emergency and where the period of stay may exceed 24 hours.  In addition to the requirements of section 4, medical care . . . facilities shall comply with section 6.

6.2 Entrances.  At least one accessible entrance that complies with 4.14 shall be protected from the weather by canopy or roof overhang.  Such entrances shall incorporate a passenger loading zone that complies with 4.6.6.

209.3  Medical Care and Long-Term Care Facilities.  At least one passenger loading zone complying with 503 shall be provided at an accessible entrance to licensed medical care and licensed long-term care facilities where the period of stay exceeds twenty-four hours.

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Section 1106.6.1 has an equivalent requirement for passenger loading zones at medical care and long-term care facilities.

 

IBC 2003:  Section 1106.7.2 has an equivalent requirement for passenger loading zones at medical care and long-term care facilities.

 

The current guidelines and the final revised guidelines require medical care and long-term care facilities, where the period of stay exceeds 24 hours, to provide at least one passenger loading zone at an accessible entrance.  The current guidelines also require a canopy or roof overhang at the passenger loading zone.  The final revised guidelines do not require a canopy or roof overhang.

 

5.11     Aisle Stairs and Ramps in Assembly Areas

 

Table 5.11 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping and technical requirements for aisle stairs and ramps in assembly areas.

 

Table 5.11 – Aisle Stairs and Ramps in Assembly Areas (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.1.3  Accessible Buildings: New Construction.  Accessible buildings and facilities shall meet the following minimum requirements: . . . 

 

(4)  Interior and exterior stairs connecting levels that are not connected by an elevator, ramp, or other accessible means of vertical access shall comply with 4.9.

 

4.9.4  Handrails.  Stairways shall have handrails at both sides of all stairs.  Handrails shall comply with 4.26 and shall have the following features:

 

(1)  Handrails shall be continuous along both sides of stairs. . . .

 

(2)  If handrails are not continuous, they shall extend at least 12 in (305 mm) beyond the top riser and at least 12 in (305 mm) plus the width of one thread beyond the bottom riser. . . .

 

4.8.1  General.  Any part of an accessible route with a slope greater than 1:20 shall be considered a ramp and shall comply with 4.8.

 

4.8.5  Handrails.  If a ramp run has a rise greater than 6 in (150 mm) or a horizontal projection greater than 72 in (150 mm), than it shall have handrails on both sides.  Handrails are not required on curb ramps or adjacent to seating in assembly areas.  Handrails shall comply with 4.26 and shall have the following features:

 

(1)  Handrails shall be provided along both sides of ramp segments. . . .

 

(2)  If handrails are not continuous, they shall extend at least 12 in (305 mm) beyond the top and bottom of the ramp segment and shall be parallel with the floor or ground surface (see Fig. 17). . . .

210.1  General.  Interior and exterior stairs that are part of a means of egress shall comply with 504.

Exceptions: . . .

3. In assembly areas, aisle stairs shall not be required to comply with 504.

 

[Note: Section 504 requires stairs to have handrails complying with 505.]

 

405.1  General.  Ramps on accessible routes shall comply with 405.

Exception:  In assembly areas, aisle ramps adjacent to seating and not serving elements required to be on an accessible route shall not be required to comply with 405.

 

405.8  Handrails.  Ramp runs with a rise greater than 6 inches (150 mm) shall have handrails complying with 505.

 

505.2  Where Required.  Handrails shall be provided on both sides of stairs and ramps.

Exception:  In assembly areas, handrails shall not be required on both sides of aisle ramps where a handrail is provided at either side or within the aisle width.

 

505.3  Continuity.  Handrails shall be continuous within the full length of each stair flight or ramp run. . . . .

Exception:  In assembly areas, handrails on ramps shall not be required to be continuous in aisles serving seating.

 

505.10  Handrail Extensions.  Handrail gripping surfaces shall extend beyond and in the same direction of stair flights and ramp runs in accordance with 505.10.

Exceptions: . . . 

2.  In assembly areas, extensions shall not be required for ramp handrails in aisles serving seating where the handrails are discontinuous to provide access to seating and to permit crossovers within aisles. . . .

Model Codes & Standards

ICC/ANSI A117.1-1998:  Sections 505.2, 505.3, and 505.10 have equivalent exceptions for aisle ramps in assembly areas with respect to handrail location, continuity, and extensions.

 

The current guidelines require stairs that connect levels not served by an elevator, ramp, or platform lift to comply with the technical requirements for stairs.  The final revised guidelines require stairs that are part of a means of egress to comply with the technical requirements for stairs.  The current guidelines do not contain any exceptions for aisle stairs in assembly areas.  The final revised guidelines add a new exception that exempts aisle stairs in assembly areas from the technical requirements for stairs, including handrails.

 

The current guidelines exempt aisle ramps adjacent to seating in assembly areas only from providing handrails.  The final revised guidelines exempt aisle ramps adjacent to seating in assembly areas, which do not serve accessible elements, from all the technical requirements for ramps.  Where aisle ramps in assembly areas serve accessible elements, the final revised guidelines exempt the aisle ramps from providing:

 

§    Handrails on both sides of an aisle ramp, where a handrail is provided at one side of the aisle ramp or within the aisle ramp.

 

§    Continuous handrails for the full length of an aisle ramp run.

 

§    Handrail extensions beyond an aisle ramp run, where there are breaks in the handrail to provide access to seating and to permit crossovers within the aisle.

 

5.12     Multiple Single User Toilet Rooms[81]

 

Table 5.12 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping requirement for toilet rooms.

 

Table 5.12 – Multiple Single User Toilet Rooms (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.1.3  Accessible Buildings: New Construction.  Accessible buildings and facilities shall meet the following minimum requirements: . . . 

 

(11)  Toilet Facilities.  If toilet rooms are provided, then each public and common use toilet room shall comply with 4.22. . . .

213.2  Toilet and Bathing Rooms.  Where toilet rooms are provided, each toilet room shall comply with 603. . . .

Exceptions: . . . 

4.  Where multiple single user toilet rooms are clustered at a single location, no more than 50 percent of the single user toilet rooms for each use at each cluster shall be required to comply with 603.

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Section 1108.2 has a similar exception for multiple single user toilet rooms clustered at a single location.

 

IBC 2003:  Section 1109.2 has a similar exception for multiple single user toilet rooms clustered at a single location.

 

The current guidelines and the final revised guidelines require each toilet room to be accessible.  The final revised guidelines add a new exception for multiple single user toilet rooms clustered at a single location.  The exception requires at least 50 percent of these toilet rooms to be accessible.  This exception will reduce the impacts on medical facilities where multiple single user toilet rooms are provided for specimen collection.

 

5.13     Urinals

 

Table 5.13 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping requirement for urinals.

 

Table 5.13 – Urinals (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.22.5  Urinals.  If urinals are provided, then at least one shall comply with 4.18.

213.3.3  Urinals.  Where more than one urinal is provided, at least one shall comply with 605.

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Section 1108.2 has a similar requirement for the number of urinals.

 

IBC 2003:  Section 1109.2 has an equivalent requirement for the number of urinals.

 

Where urinals are provided, the current guidelines require at least one to be accessible.  The final revised guidelines require at least one urinal to be accessible, where more than one is provided.  If a toilet room has only one urinal, an accessible urinal is not required.

 

5.14     Visible Alarms in Alterations to Existing Facilities

 

Table 5.14 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping requirement for visible alarms in alterations to existing facilities.

 

Table 5.14 – Visible Alarms and Alterations to Existing Facilities (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.1.3  Accessible Buildings: New Construction.

Accessible buildings and facilities shall meet the following minimum requirements: . . .

 

(14)  If emergency warning systems are provided, then they shall include both audible alarms and visual alarms complying with 4.28. . . .

 

4.1.6  Accessible Buildings: Alterations.

(1) General.  Alterations to existing buildings and facilities shall comply with the following: . . .

 

(b)  If existing elements, spaces, or common areas are altered, then each such altered element, space, feature, or area shall comply with the applicable provisions of 4.1.1 to 4.1.3 Minimum Requirements (for New Construction). . . .

202.3  Alterations.  Where existing elements or spaces are altered, each altered element or space shall comply with the applicable requirements of Chapter 2.

 

215.1  General.  Where fire alarm systems provide audible alarm coverage, alarms shall comply with 215.

Exception:  In existing facilities, visible alarms shall not be required except where an existing fire alarm system is upgraded or replaced, or a new fire alarm system is installed.

 

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Section 907.9.1 has an equivalent exception for visible alarms in alterations to existing facilities.

 

IBC 2003:  Section 907.9.1 has an equivalent exception for visible alarms in alterations to existing facilities.

 

The current guidelines and the final revised guidelines require that when existing elements and spaces of a facility are altered, the alterations must comply with new construction requirements.  The final revised guidelines add a new exception to the scoping requirement for visible alarms in alterations to existing facilities.  Visible alarms are required only when an existing fire alarm system is upgraded or replaced, or a new fire alarm system is installed. 

5.15     Signs

 

Table 5.15 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to scoping and technical requirements for signs.

 

Table 5.15 – Signs (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.1.2  Accessible Sites and Exterior Facilities: New Construction.  An accessible site shall meet the following minimum requirements: . . .

 

(7)  Building Signage.  Signs which designate permanent rooms and spaces shall comply with 4.30.1, 4.30.4, 4.30.5, and 4.30.6.  Other signs which provide direction to, or information about, functional spaces of the building shall comply with 4.30.1, 4.30.2, 4.30.3, and 4.30.5. . . .

 

4.1.3  Accessible Buildings: New Construction.  Accessible buildings and facilities shall meet the following minimum requirements: . . . 

 

(16)  Building Signage.

 

(a)  Signs which designate permanent rooms and spaces shall comply with 4.30.1, 4.30.4, 4.30.5, and 4.30.6.

 

(b)  Other signs which provide direction to or information about functional spaces of the building shall comply with 4.30.1, 4.30.2, 4.30.3, and 4.30.5.

Exception:  Building directories, menus, and all other signs which are temporary are not required to comply.

 

4.30.6  Mounting Location and Height.  Where permanent identification is provided for rooms and spaces, signs shall be installed on the wall adjacent to the latch side of the door. . . . Mounting height shall be 60 in (1525 mm) above the finish floor to the centerline of the sign. . . .

216.1  General.  Signs shall be provided in accordance with 216 and shall comply with 703.

Exceptions: 1.  Building directories, menus, seat and row designations in assembly areas, occupant names, building addresses, and company names and logos shall not be required to comply with 216.

2.  In parking facilities, signs shall not be required to comply with 216.2, 216.3, and 216.6 through 216.12.

3.  Temporary, 7 days or less, signs shall not be required to comply with 216. . . .

 

216.2  Designations.  Interior and exterior signs identifying permanent rooms and spaces shall comply with 703.1, 703.2, and 703.5.  . . .

Exception:  Exterior signs that are not located at the door to the space they serve shall not be required to comply with 703.2.

 

216.3  Directional and Informational Signs.  Signs that provide direction to or information about interior spaces and facilities of the site shall comply with 703.5.

 

703.4.1  Height Above Finish Floor or Ground.  Tactile characters on signs shall be located 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum above the finish floor or ground surface, measured from the baseline of the lowest tactile character and 60 inches (1525 mm) maximum above the finish floor or ground surface, measured from the baseline of the highest tactile character. . . .

 

703.4.2  Location.  Where a tactile sign is provided at a door, the sign shall be located alongside the door at the latch side. . . .

Exception:  Signs with tactile characters shall be permitted on the push side of doors with closers and without hold-open devices.

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Section E1107.3 of Appendix E has similar requirements and exceptions for certain signs.

 

IBC 2003:  Sections E107.2 and E107.3 of Appendix E has similar requirements and exceptions for certain signs.

 

ICC/ANSI A117.1-1998:  Section 703.2.7 has an equivalent requirement for the height of tactile characters on signs.  Section 703.2.8 has an equivalent exception for the location of signs with tactile characters.

 

The current guidelines and the final revised guidelines have scoping and technical requirements for certain signs.  The current guidelines contain an exception that exempts building directories, menus, and temporary signs from the requirements.  The final revised guidelines expand this exception to include seat and row designations in assembly areas, occupant names, building addresses, and company names and logos.  The final revised guidelines also exempt signs in parking facilities, other than signs identifying accessible parking spaces and means of egress. The final revised guidelines clarify that the exception for temporary signs applies to signs used for 7 days or less.  The final revised guidelines add a new exception that exempts exterior signs identifying permanent rooms and spaces from providing tactile characters, where the exterior signs are not located at the door to the space they serve. 

 

The current guidelines require signs with tactile characters identifying permanent rooms to be located 60 inches above the finish floor along the latch side of the door, measured to the centerline of the sign.  The final revised guidelines provide greater flexibility, and require the signs be located between 48 inches above the finish floor, measured from the baseline of the lowest tactile character, and 60 inches above the finish floor, measured from the baseline of the highest tactile character.  The final revised guidelines also permit signs with tactile characters to be located on the push side of doors with closers that do not have hold-open devices.

 

5.16     Drive-Up Public Telephones

 

Table 5.16 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping requirement for wheelchair accessible public telephones.

 

Table 5.16 – Public Telephones (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.1.3  Accessible Buildings: New Construction.  Accessible buildings and facilities shall meet the following minimum requirements: . . . 

(17)  Public Telephones.

(a)  If public pay telephones, public closed circuit telephones, or other public telephones are provided, then they shall comply with 4.31.2 through 4.31.8 to the extent required by the following table: . . .

217.2  Wheelchair Accessible Telephones.  Where public telephones are provided, wheelchair accessible telephones complying with 704.2 shall be provided in accordance with Table 217.2.

Exception:  Drive-up only public telephones shall not be required to comply with 217.2.

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  No exception for drive-up only public telephones.

 

IBC 2003:  No exception for drive-up only public telephones.

 

Where public telephones are provided, the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines require a certain number of telephones to be wheelchair accessible.  The final revised guidelines add a new exception that exempts drive-up public telephones.

 

5.17     Assistive Listening Systems[82]

 

Table 5.17.1 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping requirements for assistive listening systems.

 

Table 5.17.1 – Assistive Listening Systems (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.1.3  Accessible Buildings: New Construction.  Accessible buildings and facilities shall meet the following minimum requirements: . . . 

 

(19)  Assembly Areas. . . .

 

(b)  This paragraph applies to assembly areas where audible communications are integral to the use of the space (e.g., concert and lecture halls, playhouses and movie theaters, meeting rooms, etc.).  Such assembly areas, if (1) they accommodate at least 50 persons, or if they have audio-amplification systems, and (2) they have fixed seating, shall have a permanently installed

assistive listening system complying with 4.33.  For other assembly areas, a permanently installed assistive listening system, or an adequate number of electrical outlets or other supplementary wiring necessary to support a portable listening system shall be provided.  The minimum number of receivers to be provided shall be equal to 4 percent of the total number of seats, but in no case less than two.  . . .

 

11.2.1  Courtrooms.  . . .

 

(2) Permanently installed assistive listening systems complying with 4.33 shall be provided in each courtroom.  The minimum number of receivers shall be four percent of the room occupant load, as determined by applicable State or local codes, but not less than two receivers.  . . .

 

 

219.2  Required Systems.  In each assembly area where audible communication is integral to the use of the space, an assistive listening system shall be provided.

Exception:  Other than in courtrooms, assistive listening systems shall not be required where audio amplification is not provided.

 

219.3  Receivers.  Receivers complying with 706.2 shall be provided for assistive listening systems in each assembly area in accordance with Table 219.3.  Twenty-five percent minimum of receivers provided, but no fewer than two, shall be hearing-aid compatible in accordance with 706.3. 

Exceptions: 1.  Where a building contains more than one assembly area and the assembly areas required to provide assistive listening systems are under one management, the total number of required receivers shall be permitted to be calculated according to the total number of seats in the assembly areas in the building provided that all receivers are usable with all systems.

2.  Where all seats in an assembly area are served by an induction loop assistive listening system, the minimum number of receivers required by Table 219.3 to be hearing-aid compatible shall not be required to be provided.

 

Table 219.3 Receivers for Assistive Listening Systems

 

 

Capacity of Seating in Assembly Area

 

Minimum  Number of Required Receivers

Minimum Number of Required Receivers Required to be Hearing-Aid Compatible

50 or less

2

2

 

51 to 200

2, plus 1 per

 25 seats over 50 seats¹

 

2

 

201 to 500

2, plus 1 per

25 seats over

50 seats¹

 

1 per 4 receivers¹

 

501 to 1000

20, plus 1 per 33 seats over 500 seats¹

 

1 per 4 receivers¹

 

1001 to 2000

35, plus 1 per

50 seats over 1000 seats¹

 

1 per 4 receivers¹

 

2001 and over

55, plus 1 per

100 seats over

2000 seats¹

 

1 per 4 receivers¹

1. Or fraction thereof

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Section 1107.2.4 has similar requirements for assistive listening systems and the number of receivers, but no exceptions.

 

IBC 2003:  Section 1108.2.7 has equivalent requirements for assistive listening systems and the number of receivers, and an equivalent exception for buildings that contain more than one assembly area.

 

The current guidelines require assembly areas where audible communication is integral to the use of the space to provide an assistive listening system if they have an audio amplification system or an occupant load of 50 or more persons.  The final revised guidelines exempt assembly areas, other than court rooms, that do not have audio amplification systems from providing assistive listening systems. 

 

The current guidelines require receivers to be provided for at least 4 percent of the seats or room occupant load.  The final revised guidelines revise the percentage of receivers required.  As Table 5.17.2 shows, the number of receivers is significantly reduced for larger assembly areas.

 

Table 5.17.2 – Number of Receivers Required (text version)

Seating Capacity

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

5,000

200

85

10,000

400

135

25,000

1,000

285

50,000

2,000

535

 

The final revised guidelines add a new exception that allows multiple assembly areas that are in the same building and under the same management, such as theaters in a multiplex cinema and lecture halls in a college building, to calculate the number of receivers required based on the total number of seats in all the assembly areas, instead of each assembly area separately, where the receivers are compatible with the assistive listening systems used in each of the assembly areas.

 

The final revised guidelines also require at least 25 percent, but no fewer than two, of the receivers to be hearing-aid compatible.  Assembly areas served by an induction loop assistive listening system do not have to provide hearing-aid compatible receivers.

 

5.18     Wheelchair Spaces in Assembly Areas[83]

 

Table 5.18.1 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping requirements for wheelchair spaces in assembly areas.

 

Table 5.18.1 – Wheelchair Spaces in Assembly Areas (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.1.3  Accessible Buildings: New Construction.  Accessible buildings and facilities shall meet the following minimum requirements: . . . 

 

(19)  Assembly Areas.

 

(a)  In places of assembly with fixed seating, accessible wheelchair locations shall comply with 4.33.2, 4.33.3, and 4.33.4 and shall be provided consistent with the following table:

 

Capacity of Seating

in Assembly Areas

Number of Required Wheelchair Locations

4 to 25

1

26 to 50

2

51 to 300

4

301 to 500

6

over 500 seats

6 plus one additional seat for each total seating capacity increase over 100

. . .

 

 

221.2  Wheelchair Spaces.  Wheelchair spaces complying with 221.2 shall be provided in assembly areas with fixed seating.

 

221.2.1.1  General Seating.  Wheelchair spaces complying with 802.1 shall be provided in accordance with Table 221.2.1.1.

 

Table 221.2.1.1 Number of Wheelchair Spaces

 in Assembly Areas

Number of Seats

Minimum Number of Required Wheelchair Spaces

4 to 25

1

26 to 50

2

51 to 150

4

151 to 300

5

301 to 500

6

501 to 5000

6, plus 1 for each 150,

 or fraction thereof,

between 501 through 5000

 

5001 and over

36, plus 1 for each 200,

or fraction thereof,

over 5000

 

221.2.1.2  Luxury Boxes, Club Boxes, and Suites in Arenas, Stadiums, and Grandstands.  In each luxury box, club box, and suite within arenas, stadiums, and grandstands, wheelchair spaces complying with 802.1 shall be provided in accordance with Table 221.2.1.1.

 

221.2.1.3  Other Boxes.  In boxes other than those required to comply with 221.2.1.2, the total number of wheelchair spaces required shall be determined in accordance with Table 221.2.1.1  Wheelchair spaces shall be located in not less than 20 percent of all boxes provided.  Wheelchair spaces shall comply with 802.1.

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Section 1107.2.2 has similar requirements for the number of wheelchair spaces in assembly areas.

 

IBC 2003:  Section 1108.2.2 has similar requirements for the number of wheelchair spaces in assembly areas.

 

The current guidelines and the final revised guidelines require assembly areas with fixed seating to provide wheelchair spaces based on seating capacity.  The final revised guidelines revise the number of wheelchair spaces required in assembly areas with more than 500 seats.  As Table 5.18.2 shows, the number of wheelchair spaces is significantly reduced for larger assembly areas.

 

Table 5.18.2 – Number of Wheelchair Spaces Required (text version)

Seating Capacity

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

5,000

51

36

10,000

101

61

25,000

251

136

50,000

501

261

 

The final revised guidelines clarify that the scoping requirements are to be applied separately to general seating areas, and to each luxury box, club box, and suite in stadiums and arenas.  In performing arts facilities with tiered boxes, the scoping requirement is applied to the total number of seats in the tiered boxes, and the wheelchair spaces are required to be dispersed among at least 20 percent of the tiered boxes.  For example, if a performing arts facility has 20 tiered boxes with 5 fixed seats in each box, at least 4 wheelchair spaces must be provided in the boxes, and they must be dispersed among at least 4 of the 20 boxes.

 

5.19     Patient Toilet Rooms[84]

 

Table 5.19 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping requirement for patient toilet rooms. 

 

Table 5.19 – Patient Toilet Rooms (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

6.4  Patient Toilet Rooms.  Where toilet/bathrooms are provided as a part of a patient bedroom, each patient bedroom that is required to be accessible shall have an accessible toilet/bathroom that complies with 4.22 or 4.23 and shall be on an accessible route.

223.1  General.  In licensed medical care facilities and licensed long-term care facilities where the period of stay exceeds twenty-four hours, patient or resident sleeping rooms shall be provided in accordance with 223.

Exception:  Toilet rooms that are part of critical or intensive care patient sleeping rooms shall not be required to comply with 603.

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  No exception for toilet rooms serving critical or intensive care patient sleeping rooms.

 

IBC 2003:  Section 1109.2 has an equivalent exception for toilet rooms serving critical or intensive care patient sleeping rooms.

 

The current guidelines and the final revised guidelines require a percentage of patient sleeping rooms to provide mobility features, including accessible toilet rooms. The final revised guidelines add a new exception that exempts toilet rooms serving critical or intensive care patient sleeping rooms.

5.20     Self-Service Storage Facilities

 

Table 5.20 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping requirement for self-service storage facilities.

 

Table 5.20 – Self-Service Storage Facilities (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.1.1 Application.

 

(1)  General.  All areas of newly designed or newly constructed buildings and facilities and altered portions of existing buildings and facilities shall comply with section 4, unless otherwise provided in this section or as modified in a special application section.

 

 

 

225.3  Self-Service Storage Facilities.  Self-service storage facilities shall provide individual self-storage spaces complying with these requirements in accordance with Table 225.3.

 

Table 225.3  Self-Service Storage Facilities

Total Spaces in Facility

Minimum Number of Spaces

Required to be Accessible

1 to 200

5 percent, but no fewer than 1

 

201 and over

10, plus 2 percent of total number of units over 200

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Section 1107.6 has an equivalent requirement for the number of accessible storage spaces.

 

IBC 2003:  Section 1108.3 has an equivalent requirement for the number of accessible storage spaces.

 

The current guidelines require all areas of newly constructed facilities to be accessible.  The final revised guidelines add a new scoping requirement for self-storage facilities.  Facilities with 200 or fewer storage spaces are required to make at least 5 percent of the storage spaces accessible.  Facilities with more than 200 storage spaces are required to provide 10 accessible storage spaces, plus make at least 2 percent of the storage spaces over 200 accessible. 

5.21     Washing Machines and Clothes Dryers

 

Table 5.21 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping and technical requirements for washing machines and clothes dryers.

 

Table 5.21 Washing Machines and Clothes Dryers (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.1.1 Application.

 

(1)  General.  All areas of newly designed or newly constructed buildings and facilities and altered portions of existing buildings and facilities shall comply with section 4, unless otherwise provided in this section or as modified in a special application section.

 

4.1.3  Accessible Buildings:  New Construction.  Accessible buildings and facilities shall meet the following minimum requirements: . . .

 

(13)  Controls and operating mechanisms in accessible spaces, along accessible routes, or as parts of accessible elements (for example, light switches and dispenser controls) shall comply with 4.27.

 

4.27.3  Height.  The highest operable part of controls, dispensers, receptacles and other operable equipment shall be placed within at least one of the reach ranges specified in 4.2.5 or 4.2.6.

 

4.2.6  Side Reach. . . .  If the side reach is over an obstruction, the reach and clearances shall be as shown in Fig. 6 (c).

 

[Note:  Figure 6 (c) shows an obstruction that is 34 inches maximum in height.  The high side reach is 46 inches maximum for a reach depth of 24 inches maximum.]

214.2  Washing Machines.   Where three or fewer washing machines are provided, at least one shall comply with 611.  Where more than three washing machines are provided, at least two shall comply with 611.

 

214.3 Clothes Dryers.   Where three or fewer clothes dryers are provided, at least one shall comply with 611.  Where more than three clothes dryers are provided, at least two shall comply with 611.

 

611.3 Operable Parts.  Operable parts, including doors, lint screens, and detergent and bleach compartments, shall comply with 309.

 

309.3 Operable Parts.  Operable parts shall be placed within one or more of the reach ranges specified in 308.

 

308.3.2  Obstructed High Reach.  Where a clear floor or ground space allows a parallel approach to an element and the high side reach is over an obstruction, the height of the obstruction shall be 34 inches (865 mm) maximum and the depth of the obstruction shall be 24 inches (610 mm) maximum.  . . . Where the reach depth exceeds 10 inches (225 mm), the high side reach shall be 46 inches (1170 mm) maximum for a reach depth of 24 inches (610 mm) maximum.

Exceptions:  1.  The top of washing machines and clothes dryers shall be permitted to be 36 inches (915 mm) maximum above the finish floor. . . .

     Model Codes & Standards   

ICC/ANSI A117.1-1998:  Section 308.3.2 has an equivalent requirement for an obstructed high reach, but no exception for washing machines and clothes dryers.

 

The current guidelines do not contain a specific scoping requirement for washing machines and clothes dryers.[85]  The final revised guidelines require at least one of each machine to be accessible, where three or fewer of each machine are provided; and at least two of each machine to be accessible, where more than three of each machine are provided.  The current guidelines and the final revised guidelines require the operable parts of accessible equipment to be placed within a forward or side reach; and specify a 34 inch maximum height for an obstruction for a high side reach.  The final revised guidelines add a new exception for a high side reach over washing machines and clothes dryers that permit the tops of the machines to be 36 inches maximum above the finish floor to accommodate currently available machines.

 

5.22     Handrails[86]

 

Table 5.22 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the technical requirements for handrails.

 

Table 5.22 – Handrails (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines


 

4.8.5  Handrails.  If a ramp run has a rise greater than 6 in (150 mm) or a horizontal projection greater than 72 in (150 mm), than it shall have handrails on both sides. . . . Handrails shall comply with 4.26 and shall have the following features: . . .

 

(2)  If handrails are not continuous, they shall extend at least 12 in (305 mm) beyond the top and bottom of the ramp segment and shall be parallel with the floor or ground surface (see Fig. 17).

 

(3)  The clear space between the handrail and the wall shall be 1½ in (38 mm).

 

(4)  Gripping surfaces shall be continuous.

 

4.9.4  Handrails.  Stairways shall have handrails at both sides of all stairs.  Handrails shall comply with 4.26 and shall have the following features: . . .

 

(2)  If handrails are not continuous, they shall extend at least 12 in (305 mm) beyond the top riser and at least 12 in (305 mm) plus the width of one thread beyond the bottom riser.

 

(3)  The clear space between handrails and wall shall be 1½ in (38 mm).

 

(4)  Gripping surfaces shall be uninterrupted by newel posts, other construction elements, or obstructions.

 

4.26.2  Size and Spacing of Grab Bars and Handrails.  The diameter or width of gripping surfaces of a handrail or grab bar shall be 1¼ in to 1½ in (32 mm to 38 mm), or the shape shall provide an equivalent gripping surface.  If handrails or grab bars are mounted adjacent to a wall, the space between the wall and grab bar shall be 1½ in (38 mm) (see Fig. 39(a), (b), (c), and (e)).

 

4.26.4  Eliminating Hazards.  A handrail or grab bar and any wall or other surface adjacent to it shall be free of any sharp or abrasive elements.  Edges shall have a minimum radius of ⅛ in (3.2 mm).

 

505.5  Clearance.  Clearance between handrail gripping surfaces and adjacent surfaces shall be 1½ inches (38 mm) minimum.

 

505.6  Gripping Surface.  Handrail gripping surfaces shall be continuous along their length and shall not be obstructed along their tops or sides.   The bottoms of handrail gripping surfaces shall not be obstructed more than 20 percent of their length.  Where provided, horizontal projections shall occur 1½ inches (38 mm) minimum below the bottom of the handrail gripping surface.

Exceptions: . . .

2.  The distance between the horizontal projections and the bottom of the gripping surface shall be permitted to be reduced by ⅛ inch (3mm) for each ½ inch (13 mm) of additional handrail perimeter dimension that exceeds 4 inches (100 mm).

 

505.7  Cross Section.  Handrail gripping surfaces shall have a cross section complying with 505.7.1 or 505.7.2.

 

505.7.1  Circular Cross Section.  Handrail gripping surfaces with a circular cross section shall have an outside diameter of 1¼ inches (32 mm) minimum and 2 inches (51 mm) maximum.

 

505.7.2  Non-Circular Cross Section.  Handrail gripping surfaces with a non-circular cross section shall have a perimeter dimension of 4 inches (100 mm) minimum and 6¼ inches (160 mm) maximum, and a cross section dimension of 2¼ inches (57 mm) maximum.

 

505.8  Surfaces.  Handrail gripping surfaces and any surfaces adjacent to them shall be free from sharp or abrasive elements and shall have rounded edges.

 

505.10  Handrail Extensions.  Handrail gripping surfaces shall extend beyond and in the same direction of stair flights and ramp runs in accordance with 505.10.

Exceptions: . . .

3.  In alterations, full extensions of handrails shall not be required where such extensions would be hazardous due to plan configuration.

 

505.10.3  Bottom Extension at Stairs.  At the bottom of a stair flight, handrails shall extend at the slope of the stair flight for a horizontal distance at least equal to one tread depth beyond the last riser nosing. . . .

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Section 1003.3.3.11 has similar requirements for handrails.

 

IBC 2003:  Section 1009.11 has similar requirements for handrails.

 

ICC/ANSI A117.1-1998:  Section 505 has similar requirements for handrails.

 

The current guidelines and the final revised guidelines contain technical requirements for handrails.  The final revised guidelines provide more flexibility than the current guidelines as follows:

 

§    The current guidelines require the clearance between handrail gripping surfaces and adjacent surfaces to be exactly 1½ inches.  The final revised guidelines require the clearance to be 1½ inches minimum.

 

§    The current guidelines require handrail gripping surfaces to have edges with a minimum radius of ⅛ inch.  The final revised guidelines require handrail gripping surfaces to have rounded edges.

 

§    The current guidelines require handrail gripping surfaces to have a diameter of 1¼ inches to 1½ inches, or to provide an equivalent gripping surface.  The final revised guidelines require handrail gripping surfaces with a circular cross section to have an outside diameter of 1¼ inches to 2 inches.  Handrail gripping surfaces with a non-circular cross section must have a perimeter dimension of 4 inches to 6¼ inches, and a cross section dimension of 2¼ inches maximum.

 

§    The current guidelines require handrail gripping surfaces to be continuous, and to be uninterrupted by newel posts, other construction elements, or obstructions.  The final revised guidelines require handrail gripping surfaces to be continuous along their length and not to be obstructed along their tops or sides.  The bottoms of handrail gripping surfaces must not be obstructed more than 20 percent of their length.  Where provided, horizontal projections must occur at least 1½ inches below the bottom of the handrail gripping surface.  An exception permits the distance between the horizontal projections and the bottom of the gripping surface to be reduced by ⅛ inch for each ½ inch of additional handrail perimeter dimension that exceeds 4 inches.

 

§    The current guidelines require handrails at the bottom of stairs to extend at least 12 inches plus the width of one tread beyond the bottom riser.  The final revised guidelines require handrails at the bottom of stairs to extend a horizontal distance at least equal to one tread depth beyond the last riser nosing.  The final revised guidelines add a new exception for alterations to existing facilities that exempts handrails at the top and bottom of ramps and stairs from providing full extensions where it would be hazardous due to plan configuration.

 

5.23     Toilet Room Doors[87]

 

Table 5.23 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the technical requirement for toilet room doors.

 

Table 5.23 – Toilet Room Doors (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.22.2  Doors.  All doors to accessible toilet rooms shall comply with 4.13.  Doors shall not swing into the clear floor space required for any fixture.

603.1  General.  Toilet and bathing rooms shall comply with 603.

 

603.2.3  Door Swing.  Doors shall not swing into the clear floor space or clearance required for any fixture.  Doors shall be permitted to swing into the required turning space.

Exceptions: . . .

2.  Where the toilet room or bathing room is for individual use and a clear floor space complying with 305.3 is provided within the room beyond the arc of the door swing, doors shall be permitted to swing into the clear floor space or clearance required for any fixture.

Model Codes & Standards

ICC/ANSI A117.1-1998:  Section 603.2.3 has an equivalent requirement for toilet room doors and an equivalent exception for single-user toilet rooms.

 

The current guidelines and the final revised guidelines prohibit doors from swinging into the clear floor space or clearance required for any fixture in toilet rooms.  The final revised guidelines add a new exception for single-user toilet rooms that permits the door to swing into the clear floor space or clearance required for any fixture, where a clear floor space is provided within the room beyond the arc of the door swing.  This exception results in at least a 7 square feet reduction in the required size of an accessible single-user toilet room.

 

5.24     Water Closet Location and Rear Wall Grab Bar[88]

 

Table 5.24 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the technical requirements for the water closet location and rear grab bar. 

 

Table 5.24 – Water Closet Location and Rear Wall Grab Bar (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.17.3  Size and Arrangement.  The size and arrangement of the standard toilet stall shall comply with Fig. 30(a), Standard Stall. . . .

 

[Note:  Figure 30 (a) shows the centerline of the water closet as 18 inches (455 mm) absolute from the side wall.]

 

4.17.6  Grab Bars.  Grab bars complying with the length and positioning shown in Fig. 30 (a), (b), (c), and (d) shall be provided. . . .

 

[Note:  Figures 30 (a), (b), (c), and (d) show the length of the rear grab bar as 36 inches (915 mm) minimum.]

604.2  Location.  The water closet shall be positioned with a wall or partition to the rear and to one side.  The centerline of the water closet shall be 16 inches (405 mm) minimum to 18 inches (455 mm) maximum from the side wall or partition. . . .

 

604.5.2  Rear Wall.  The rear wall grab bar shall be 36 inches (915 mm) long minimum and extend from the centerline of the water closet 12 inches (305 mm) minimum on one side and 24 inches (610 mm) on the other side.

Exceptions: 1.  The rear grab bar shall be permitted to be 24 inches (610 mm) long minimum, centered on the water closet, where wall space does not permit a length of 36 inches (915 mm) minimum due to the location of a recessed fixture adjacent to the water closet. . . .

Model Codes & Standards

ICC/ANSI A117.1-1998:  Sections 604.2 has an equivalent requirement for the water closet location.  Section 604.5.2 has a similar requirement for the rear wall grab bar.

 

The current guidelines and the final revised guidelines contain technical requirements for the location of water closets and the rear wall grab bar.  The current guidelines require the centerline of the water closet in accessible toilet rooms and compartments to be located exactly 18 inches from the side wall, and the rear wall grab bar to be at least 36 inches long.  The final revised guidelines require the centerline of the water closet to be located between 16 inches and 18 inches from the side wall.  The final revised guidelines add a new exception that permits the rear wall grab bar to be at least 24 inches long, where there is not enough wall space for a 36 inch long grab bar because a lavatory is located adjacent to the water closet and the wall behind the lavatory is recessed so that the lavatory does not overlap the clear floor space at the water closet.

 

5.25     Shower Compartments[89]

 

Table 5.25 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the technical requirements for shower compartments.

 

Table 5.25 – Shower Compartments (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.21.2  Size and Clearances.  Except as specified in 9.1.2, shower stall size and clear floor space shall comply with Fig. 35 (a) or (b).  The shower stall in Fig. 35 (a) shall be 36 in by 36 in (915 mm by 915 mm).  Shower stall required by 9.1.2 shall comply with Fig. 57 (a) or (b).  The shower stall in Fig. 35 (b) will fit into the space required for a bathtub.

 

[Note:  Figure 35 (b) shows a roll-in shower compartment that is 30 inches wide and 60 inches long minimum and that has no seat.]

 

9.1.2  Accessible Units, Sleeping Rooms, and Suites. 

. . . In addition, in hotels of 50 or more sleeping rooms or suites, additional accessible sleeping rooms or suites that include a roll-in shower shall also be provided in conformance with the table below.  Such accommodations shall comply with the requirements of 9.2, 4.21, and Figure 57 (a) or (b). . . .

 

[Note:  Figure 57 (b) shows an alternate roll-in shower compartment that is 36 inches wide and 60 inches long minimum and that has a seat.  There is a 36 inch minimum opening on the long side of the compartment.  The controls are located on the end wall adjacent to the seat.]

 

4.21.5  Controls.  Faucets and other controls complying with 4.27.4 shall be located as shown in Fig. 37. . . .

 

[Note:  Figure 37 shows the control area located between 38 inches minimum and 48 inches maximum above the shower floor.]

 

4.21.7  Curbs.  If provided, curbs in shower stalls 36 in by 36 in (915 mm by 915 mm) shall be no higher than ½ in (13 mm).  Shower stalls that are 30 in by 60 in (760 mm by 1525 mm) minimum shall not have curbs.

 

 

608.1  General.  Shower compartments shall comply with 608.

 

608.2.1  Transfer Type Shower Compartments.  Transfer type shower compartments shall be 36 inches (915 mm) by 36 inches (915 mm) clear inside dimensions measured at the center points of opposing sides and shall have a 36 inch (915 mm) wide minimum entry on the face of the shower compartment. . . .

 

608.2.3 Alternate Roll-In Type Shower Compartments.  Alternate roll-in type shower compartments shall be 36 inches (915 mm) wide and 60 inches (1220 mm) deep minimum clear inside dimensions measured at center points of opposing sides.  A 36 inch (915 mm) wide minimum entry shall be provided at one end of the long side of the compartment.

 

608.4  Seats.  A folding or non-folding seat shall be provided in transfer type shower compartments.  A folding seat shall be provided in roll-in showers required in transient lodging guest rooms required to provide mobility features complying with 806.2. . . .

 

608.5.3  Alternate Roll-In Type Shower Compartments.  In alternate roll-in type shower compartments, the controls, faucets, and shower spray unit shall be located above the grab bar, but no higher than 48 inches (1220 mm) above the shower floor.  Where a seat is provided, the controls, faucets, and shower spray unit shall be located on the side wall adjacent to the seat 27 inches (685 mm) maximum from the side wall behind the seat or shall be located on the back wall opposite the seat 15 inches (380 mm) maximum, left or right, of the centerline of the seat.  Where a seat is not provided, the controls, faucets, and shower spray unit shall be installed on the side wall farthest from the compartment entry.

 

608.7  Thresholds.  Thresholds in roll-in type shower compartments shall be ½ inch (13 mm) high maximum in accordance with 303.  In transfer type shower compartments, thresholds ½ inch (13 mm) high maximum shall be beveled, rounded, or vertical.

Exception:  A threshold 2 inches (51 mm) high maximum shall be permitted in transfer type shower compartments in existing facilities where provision of a ½ inch (13 mm) high threshold would disturb the structural reinforcement of the floor slab.

Model Codes & Standards

ICC/ANSI A117.1-1998:  Sections 608.2 through 608.7 have similar requirements for shower compartments.

 

The current guidelines and the final revised guidelines contain technical requirements for transfer-type and roll-in shower compartments.  The final revised guidelines provide more flexibility than the current guidelines as follows:

 

§    Transfer-type showers are 36 inches by 36 inches and have a folding or non-folding seat.  The final revised guidelines specify that these dimensions are measured at the center point of opposing sides to accommodate molded compartments with rounded bottom edges. 

 

§    The current guidelines and the final revised guidelines permit a ½ inch maximum curb in transfer-type showers.  The final revised guidelines add a new exception that permits a 2 inch maximum curb in transfer-type showers in alterations to existing facilities, where recessing the compartment to achieve a ½ inch curb would disturb the structural reinforcement of the floor slab.

 

§    Roll-in showers are 30 inches minimum by 60 inches minimum.  Alternate roll-in showers are 36 inches by 60 inches minimum, and have a 36 inch minimum opening on the long side of the compartment.  The current guidelines permit alternate roll-in showers to be used only in hotel guest rooms; require a seat to be provided on the side with the opening; and require the controls to be located on the side adjacent to the seat.  The final revised guidelines permit alternate roll-in showers to be used in any facility; only require a seat in hotel guest rooms; and provide more locations for the controls. 

 

§    The current guidelines prohibit curbs in roll-in showers.  The final revised guidelines permit a ½ inch maximum curb. 

5.26     Sales and Service Counters

 

Table 5.26 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the technical requirements for sales and service counters.

 

Table 5.26 – Sales and Service Counters (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

7.2 Sales and Service Counters . . .

 

(1)  In areas used for transactions where counters have cash registers and are provided for sales or distribution of goods or services to the public, at least one of each type shall have a portion of the counter which is at least 36 in (915 mm) in length with a maximum height of 36 in (915 mm) above the finish floor. . . .

 

(2)  In areas used for transactions that may not have a cash register but at which goods or services are sold or distributed . . . either:

 

(i)  a portion of the main counter which is a minimum of 36 in (915 mm) in length shall be provided with a maximum height of 36 in (915 mm); or

 

(ii)  an auxiliary counter with  maximum height of 36 in (915 mm) in close proximity to the main counter be provided; or

 

(iii)  equivalent facilitation shall be provided . . .

904.4 Sales and Service Counters.  Sales and service counters shall comply with 904.4.1 or 904.4.2.  The accessible portion of the counter top shall extend the same depth as the sales or service counter top.

Exception:  In alterations, when the provision of a counter complying with 904.4 would result in a reduction of the number of existing counters at work stations or a reduction of the number of existing mailboxes, the counter shall be permitted to have a portion which is 24 inches (610 mm) long minimum complying with 904.4.1 provided that the required clear floor or ground space is centered on the accessible length of the counter.

 

904.4.1  Parallel Approach.  A portion of the counter surface that is 36 inches (915 mm) long minimum and 36 inches (915 mm) high maximum above the finish floor shall be provided.  A clear floor or ground space complying with 305 shall be positioned for a parallel approach adjacent to the 36 inch (915 mm) minimum length of the counter.

Exception:  Where the provided counter surface is less than 36 inches (915 mm) long, the entire counter surface shall be 36 inches (915 mm) high maximum above the finish floor.

 

904.4.2  Forward Approach.  A portion of the counter surface that is 30 inches (760 mm) long minimum and 36 inches (915 mm) high maximum shall be provided. Knee and toe space complying with 306 shall be provided under the counter.  A clear floor or ground space complying with 305 shall be positioned for a forward approach to the counter.

Model Codes & Standards

ICC/ANSI A117.1-1998:  Section 904.3 has similar requirements for sales and service counters.

 

The current guidelines and the final revised guidelines contain technical requirements for sales and service counters.  The current guidelines generally require counters to have an accessible portion at least 36 inches long and no higher than 36 inches.  The current guidelines provide some flexibility for counters that do not have cash registers.  The final revised guidelines specify different lengths for the accessible portion of counters based on the type of approach.  Where a forward approach is provided, the accessible portion of the counter must be at least 30 inches long and no higher than 36 inches, and knee and toe space must be provided under the counter.  Where a parallel approach is provided, the accessible portion of the counter must be at least 36 inches long and no higher than 36 inches.  The final revised guidelines add a new exception for alterations to counters in existing facilities that permits the accessible portion of the counter to be at least 24 inches long, where providing a longer accessible counter would result in a reduction in the number of existing counters or existing mailboxes.

 

The final revised guidelines clarify that the accessible portion of the counter must extend the same depth as the sales or service counter top.  Where the counter is a single-height counter, this requirement applies across the entire depth of the counter top.  Where the counter is a split-height counter, this requirement applies only to the customer side of the counter top.  The employee-side of the counter top may be higher or lower than the customer-side of the counter top.

5.27     Detectable Warnings

 

Table 5.27 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping and technical requirements for detectable warnings.

 

Table 5.27 – Detectable Warnings (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.1.3  Accessible Buildings:  New Construction.

Accessible buildings and facilities shall meet the following minimum requirements: . . .

 

(15)  Detectable warnings shall be provided at locations specified in 4.29.

 

4.7.7  Detectable Warnings.  A curb ramp shall have a detectable warning complying with 4.29.2.  The detectable warning shall extend the full width and depth of the curb ramp.

 

4.29.1  General.  Detectable warnings required by 4.1 and 4.7 shall comply with 4.29.

 

4.29.2  Detectable Warnings on Walking Surfaces.  Detectable warnings shall consist of  raised truncated domes with a diameter of  nominal 0.9 in (23 mm), a height of nominal 0.2 in (5 mm) and a center-to-center spacing of nominal 2.35 in (60 mm) and shall contrast visually with adjoining surfaces, either light-on-dark, or dark-on-light.  The material used to provide contrast shall be an integral part of the walking surface.  Detectable warnings used on interior surfaces shall differ from adjoining walking surfaces in resiliency or sound-on-cane contact.

 

4.29.5  Detectable Warnings at Hazardous Vehicular Areas.  If a walk crosses or adjoins a vehicular way, and the walking surfaces are not separated by curbs, railings, or other elements between the pedestrian areas and vehicular areas, the boundary between the areas shall be defined by a continuous detectable warning which is 36 in (915 mm) wide, complying with 4.29.2.

 

4.29.6  Detectable Warnings at Reflecting Pools.  The edges of reflecting pools shall be protected by railings, walls, curbs, or detectable warnings complying with 4.29.2.

 

10.3.1  New Construction.  New stations in rapid rail, light rail, commuter rail, intercity bus, intercity rail, high speed rail, and other fixed guideway systems (e.g., automated guideway transit, monorails, etc.) shall comply with the following provisions as applicable: . . .

 

(8)  Platform edges bordering on a drop-off and not protected by platform screens or guard rails shall have a detectable warning.  Such detectable warnings shall comply with 4.29.2 and shall be 24 inches wide running the full length of the platform drop-off.

218.2 New and Altered Fixed Guideway Stations.  New and altered stations in rapid rail, light rail, commuter rail, intercity rail, high speed rail, and other fixed guideway systems shall comply with 810.5 through 810.10.

 

218.3  Key Stations and Existing Intercity Rail Stations.  Key stations and existing intercity rail stations shall comply with 810.5 through 810.10.

 

810.5  Rail Platforms.  Rail platforms shall comply with 810.5.

 

810.5.2  Detectable Warnings.  Platform boarding edges not protected by platform screens or guards shall have detectable warnings complying with 705 along the full length of the public use area of the platform.

 

705.1  General.  Detectable warnings shall consist of a surface of truncated domes and shall comply with 705.

 

705.1.1  Dome Size.  Truncated domes in a detectable warning surface shall have a base diameter of 0.9 inch (23 mm) minimum and 1.4 inches (36 mm) maximum, a top diameter of 50 percent of the base diameter minimum to 65 percent of the base diameter maximum, and a height of 0.2 inch (5.1 mm).

 

705.1.2  Dome Spacing.  Truncated domes in a detectable warning surface shall have a center-to-center spacing of 1.6 inches (41 mm) minimum and 2.4 inches (61 mm) maximum, and a base-to-base spacing of 0.65 inch (17 mm) minimum, measured between the most adjacent domes on a square grid.

 

705.1.3  Contrast.  Detectable warning surfaces shall contrast visually with adjacent walking surfaces either light-on-dark, or dark-on-light.

 

705.2  Platform Edges.  Detectable warning surfaces at platform boarding edges shall be 24 inches (610 mm) wide and shall extend the full length of the public use areas of the platform.

 

 

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Section 1108.9 has an equivalent requirement for detectable warnings at transit platform edges.

 

IBC 2003:  Section 1109.9 has an equivalent requirement for detectable warnings at transit platform edges.

 

ICC/ANSI A117.1-1998:  Sections 705.1 through 705.3 have similar requirements for detectable warnings characteristics.

 

Detectable warnings are a distinctively textured surface of truncated domes that is identifiable by cane and underfoot.  The current guidelines require detectable warnings at curb ramps, hazardous vehicular areas, reflecting pools, and transit platform edges.[90]  The final revised guidelines only require detectable warnings at transit platform edges.[91]  The final revised guidelines change the specifications for the diameter and spacing of the truncated domes to permit a range of dimensions.  The final revised guidelines also delete the requirements for the material used to provide contrast to be an integral part of the truncated domes, and for the truncated domes to contrast in resiliency or sound-on-cane contact from adjoining walking surfaces at interior locations.
 


CHAPTER 6REVISIONS THAT HAVE MINIMAL IMPACTS

6.0  Introduction

 

This chapter discusses revisions to the scoping and technical requirements that will have minimal impacts on the new construction and alteration of facilities.  The relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines is presented in tables.  Unless otherwise noted, the current guidelines refer to ADAAG.  The requirements are presented in the order in which they appear in the final revised guidelines.  Scoping and technical requirements are presented together, where appropriate.  The text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines is underlined to highlight the revisions in the scoping and technical requirements.  Equivalent requirements in the International Building Code and the ICC/ANSI A117.1 Standard on Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities are also noted in the tables.[92]

6.1  Alterations to Primary Function Areas

 

Table 6.1 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping requirement for alterations to primary function areas.  The current guidelines refer to UFAS.   

 

Table 6.1 – Alterations to Primary Function Areas (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.1.6  Accessible Buildings: Alterations.

 

(3)  Where substantial alteration occurs to a building or facility, then each element or space that is altered or added shall comply with the applicable provisions of 4.1.1 to 4.1.4 of 4.1, Minimum Requirements, except to the extent where it is structurally impracticable.  The altered building or facility shall contain:

 

(a)  At least one accessible route complying with 4.3, Accessible Route, and 4.1.6(a);

 

(b)  At least one accessible entrance complying with 4.14, Entrances.  If additional entrances are altered then they shall comply with 4.1.6(a); and

 

(c)  The following toilet facilities, whichever is greater:

 

(i)  At least one toilet facility for each sex in the altered building complying with 4.22, Toilet Rooms; and 4.23, Bathrooms, Bathing Facilities, and Shower Rooms.

 

(ii)  At least one toilet facility for each sex on each substantially altered floor, where such facilities are provided, complying with 4.22, Toilet Rooms; and 4.23, Bathrooms, Bathing Facilities, and Shower Rooms.

 

(d)  In making the determination as to what constitutes “substantial alteration,” the agency issuing standards for the facility shall consider the total cost of all alterations (including but not limited to electrical, plumbing, and structural changes) for a building or facility within any twelve (12) month period.  For guidance in implementing this provision, an alteration to any building or facility is to be considered substantial if the total cost for this twelve month period amounts to 50 percent or more of the full and fair cash value of the building as defined in 3.5

202.4  Alterations Affecting Primary Function Areas.  In addition to the requirements of 202.3, an alteration that affects or could affect the usability of or access to an area containing a primary function shall be made so as to ensure that, to the maximum extent feasible, the path of travel to the altered area, including the rest rooms, telephones, and drinking fountains serving the altered area, are readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities, unless such alterations are disproportionate to the overall alterations in terms of cost and scope as determined under criteria established  by the Attorney General. . . .

 

[Note:  The Department of Justice defines a “primary function” and “disproportionate” in its regulations at 28 C.F.R. § 36.403.  A “primary function” is “a major activity for which a facility is intended.”  Alterations to provide an accessible path of travel to the altered area are “deemed disproportionate to the overall alteration when the cost exceeds 20 percent of the cost of the alteration to the primary function area.”]

 

 

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Section 3408.6 has an equivalent requirement for alterations to primary function areas.

 

IBC 2003:  Sections 3409.6 has an equivalent requirement for alterations to primary function areas.

 

UFAS requires an accessible route, accessible entrance, and accessible toilets to be provided when alterations amount to 50 percent or more of the value of the facility.  When alterations affect a primary function area containing a major activity for which the facility is intended, the final revised guidelines require the path of travel to the altered area and the toilet rooms, public telephones, and drinking fountains serving the altered area to be made accessible, to the extent that the cost of making these elements accessible does not exceeds 20 percent of the cost of the alterations to the primary function area.[93]

 

The revision affects Federal, State, and local governments.  The impacts are expected to be minimal since federally financed facilities subject to standards issued by the General Services Administration are required to comply with ADAAG when it provides an improved level of access compared to UFAS.[94]  State and local governments are permitted to use either ADAAG or UFAS.[95]  Many State and local governments use ADAAG.  The impacts are further minimized by the fact that State and local governments have made many of their existing facilities accessible to comply with separate program accessibility requirements under the Americans with Disabilities Act and section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act. 

 

6.2  Common Use Circulation Paths in Employee Work Areas

 

Table 6.2.1 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping and technical requirements for common use circulation paths in employee work areas. 
 

Table 6.2.1 – Common Use Circulation Paths in Employee Work Areas (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.1.1  Application. . .  .

 

(3)  Areas Used Only by Employees as Work Areas.  Areas that are used only as work areas shall be designed and constructed so that individuals with disabilities can approach, enter, and exit the areas.  These guidelines do not require that any areas used only as work areas be constructed to permit maneuvering within the work area or be constructed or equipped (i.e., with racks or shelves) to be accessible.

203.9 Employee Work Areas.  Spaces and elements within employee work areas shall only be required to comply with 206.2.8, 207.1, and 215.3 and shall be designed and constructed so that individuals with disabilities can approach, enter, and exit the employee work area.  Employee work areas, or portions of employee work areas, that are less than 300 square feet (28 m²) in area and elevated 7 inches (178 mm) or more above the finish floor or ground where the elevation is essential to the function of the space shall not be required to comply with these requirements or to be on an accessible route.

 

206.2.8 Employee Work Areas.  Common use circulation paths within employee work areas shall comply with 402.

Exceptions:  1.  Common use circulation paths located within employee work areas that are less than 1000 square feet (93 m²) and defined by permanently installed partitions, counters, casework, or furnishings shall not be required to comply with 402.

2.  Common use circulation paths located within employee work areas that are an integral component of work area equipment shall not be required to comply with 402.

3.  Common use circulation paths located within exterior employee work areas that are fully exposed to the weather shall not be required to comply with 402.

 

402.1 General.  Accessible routes shall comply with 402.

 

402.2  Components.  Accessible routes shall consist of one or more of the following components: walking surfaces with a running slope not steeper than 1:20, doorways, ramps, curb ramps excluding the flared sides, elevators, and platform lifts.  All components of accessible routes shall comply with the applicable requirements of Chapter 4.

 

403.5 Clearances.  Walking surfaces shall provide clearances complying with 403.5.

Exception:  Within employee work areas, clearances on common use circulation paths shall be permitted to be decreased by work area equipment provided that the decrease is essential to the function of the work being performed.

 

405.5 Clear Width.  The clear width of a ramp run and, where handrails are provided, the clear width between handrails shall be 36 inches (915 mm) minimum. 

Exception:  Within employee work areas, the required clear width of ramps that are a part of common use circulation paths shall be permitted to be decreased by work area equipment provided that the decrease is essential to the function of the work being performed.

 

405.8 Handrails.  Ramp runs with a rise greater than 6 inches (150 mm) shall have handrails complying with 505.

Exception:  Within employee work areas, handrails shall not be required where ramps that are part of common use circulation paths are designed to permit the installation of handrails complying with 505.  Ramps not subject to the exception to 405.5 shall be designed to maintain a 36 inch (915 mm) clear width when handrails are installed.

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Section 1103.2.3 has similar requirements and exceptions for employee work areas. 

 

IBC 2003:  Section 1104.3.1 has equivalent requirements and similar exceptions for employee work areas.

 

The current guidelines and the final revised guidelines require employee work areas to be designed and constructed so that individuals with disabilities can approach, enter, and exit the areas.  The work areas themselves are not required to be accessible.  The Americans with Disabilities Act requires employers to make reasonable accommodations in the workplace for individuals with disabilities, which may include modifications to work areas when needed.[96]

 

The final revised guidelines require common use circulation paths within employee works areas to comply with the technical requirements for accessible routes.  Individual employee work stations, such as a grocery checkout counter or an automobile service bay designed for use by one person, do not contain common use circulation paths and are not required to comply.[97]

 

The final revised guidelines contain several exceptions that exempt common use circulation paths in employee work areas where it may be difficult to comply with the technical requirements for accessible routes due to the size or function of the area.

 

 

 

 

 

The final revised guidelines also contain exceptions to the technical requirements for accessible routes:

 

 

 

The model building codes and fire and life safety codes, which are adopted by all the States, require circulation paths in facilities, including employee work areas, to be at least 36 inches wide for purposes of emergency egress.[98]  Accessible routes are generally at least 36 inches wide. 

 

Because of the exceptions that exempt common use circulation paths in employee work areas where it may be difficult to comply with the technical requirements for accessible routes due to the size or function of the area, and because the model building codes and fire and life safety codes, which are adopted by all the States, require circulation paths in facilities, including employee work areas, to be at least 36 inches wide for purposes of emergency egress, the revision is expected to have minimal impacts.

 

6.3  Location of Accessible Routes

 

Table 6.3 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping requirement for the location of accessible routes. 

 

Table 6.3 – Interior Accessible Routes (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.3.2  Location.

 

(1) At least one accessible route within the boundary of the site shall be provided from public transportation stops, accessible parking and accessible passenger loading zones, and public streets or sidewalks to the accessible building entrance they serve.  The accessible route shall, to the maximum extent feasible, coincide with the route for the general public.

206.3 Location.  Accessible routes shall coincide with or be located in the same area as general circulation paths.  Where circulation paths are interior, required accessible routes shall also be interior.

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Section 1104.5 has an equivalent requirement for location of accessible routes.

 

IBC 2003:  Section 1104.5 has an equivalent requirement for location of accessible routes.

 

The current guidelines require accessible routes connecting site arrival points and accessible building entrances to coincide with general circulation paths, to the maximum extent feasible.  The final revised guidelines require all accessible routes to coincide with or be located in the same general area as general circulation paths.  The revision will have no impacts on exterior accessible routes since the requirements in the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines are basically the same.  Designing interior accessible routes to coincide with or to be located in the same area as general circulation path will not typically present a difficult design challenge and is expected to have minimal impacts.

 

The final revised guidelines also require accessible routes to be located in the interior of the facility, where general circulation paths are located in the interior of the facility.  The revision affects a limited number of buildings.  For example, under the current guidelines, a two-story building that is constructed into a hill, has an interior stairway connecting the stories, and is not exempt from providing an accessible route between the stories could provide entrances to each story of the building and connect the entrances with an exterior accessible route.[99] The final revised guidelines would require an elevator to be provided since there is an interior stairway.  The revision is expected to have minimal impacts since the cost of providing an elevator would be about the same as constructing an exterior accessible route around the building. 

6.4  Public Entrances

 

Table 6.4 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping requirement for public entrances. 

 

Table 6.4 – Public Entrances (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.1.3  Accessible Buildings: New Construction.  Accessible buildings and facilities shall meet the following minimum requirements: . . .

 

(8)  The requirements in (a) and (b) below shall be satisfied independently:

 

(a)(i) At least 50 percent of all public entrances (excluding those in (b) below)  shall comply with 4.14. . . .

 

(ii)  Accessible public entrances must be provided in a number at least equivalent to the number of exits required by the applicable building or fire codes.  (This paragraph does not require an increase in the total number of public entrances planned for a facility.) . . .

 

4.1.6 Accessible Buildings: Alterations.

 

(1) General.  Alterations to existing buildings and facilities shall comply with the following: . . .

 

(h)  Entrances.  If a planned alteration entails alterations to an entrance, and the building has an accessible entrance, the entrance being altered is not required to comply with  4.1.3(8), except to the extent required by 4.1.6(2). . . .

206.4 Entrances.  Entrances shall be provided in accordance with 206.4. . . .

Exceptions:  1.  Where an alteration includes alterations to an entrance, and the building or facility has another entrance complying with 404 that is on an accessible route, the altered entrance shall not be required to comply with 206.4 unless required by 202.4. . . .

 

206.4.1 Public Entrances.  In addition to entrances required by 206.4.2 through 206.4.9, at least 60 percent of all public entrances shall comply with 404.

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Section 1105.1 has a similar requirement for the number of accessible public entrances. 

 

IBC 2003:  Section 1105.1 has a similar requirement for the number of accessible public entrances.

 

The current guidelines require at least 50 percent of public entrances to be accessible.  In addition, the current guidelines require the number of accessible public entrances to be equivalent to the number of exits required by applicable building and fire codes.  Building and fire codes typically require at least two exits to be provided from a facility.  Thus, under the current guidelines where two public entrances are planned in a newly constructed facility, both entrances must be accessible. 

 

Instead of requiring at least 50 percent of public entrances plus a number equal to the number of required exits to be made accessible, the final revised guidelines require at least 60 percent of public entrances to be made accessible.[100]  The revision is intended to achieve the same result as the current guidelines.  Thus, under the final revised guidelines where two public entrances are planned in a newly constructed facility, both entrances must be accessible.

 

Where multiple public entrances are planned to serve different site arrival points, the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines require at least one accessible route to be provided from each site arrival point, including accessible parking spaces, accessible passenger loading zones, public streets and sidewalks, and public transportation stops, to an accessible public entrance that serves the site arrival point.[101]  Thus, the accessible route requirements will typically result in more than 50 percent of the public entrances being accessible.  Requiring at least 60 percent of public entrances to be accessible is not expected to result in a substantial increase in the number of accessible entrances compared to the current guidelines. 

 

On a site with little change in elevation, providing an accessible route to an accessible entrance requires providing a walking surface with a running slope not steeper than 1:20.[102]  On a site with a moderate change in elevation, providing an accessible route to an accessible entrance requires providing a ramp with a running slope not steeper than 1:12 along all or part of the accessible route.[103]  On a site with extreme changes in elevation, providing an accessible route to an accessible entrance may require adjusting the planned location of an accessible entrance to minimize the amount of ramping, or an elevator or platform lift may be a design solution in rare cases.  Where extreme changes in elevation or other site constraints make it too difficult or too costly to make additional public entrances accessible, the likely design solution will be to eliminate redundant public entrances.

 

The current guidelines and the final revised guidelines contain exceptions that limit the number of accessible entrances required in alterations to existing facilities.  When entrances in an existing facility are altered and the facility has an accessible entrance, the entrance being altered is not required to be accessible, unless a primary function area is also altered and then an accessible path of travel must be provided to the primary function area to the extent the cost is not disproportionate.[104]

6.5  Direct Access Entrances from Parking Structures

 

Table 6.5 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping requirement for direct access entrances from parking structures. 

 

Table 6.5 – Direct Access Entrances From Parking Structures (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.1.3  Accessible Buildings: New Construction.  Accessible buildings and facilities shall meet the following minimum requirements: . . .

 

(8)(b)(i)  In addition, if direct access is provided for pedestrians from an enclosed parking garage to the building, at least one direct entrance from the garage to the building must be accessible. . . .

206.4.2 Parking Structure Entrances.  Where direct access is provided for pedestrians from a parking structure to a building or facility entrance, each direct access to the building or facility entrance shall comply with 404.

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Section 1105.2 has a similar requirement for the number of accessible direct access entrances from parking structures.

 

IBC 2003:  Section 1105.1.1 has an equivalent requirement for the number of accessible direct access entrances from parking structures.

 

Where levels in a parking garage have direct connections for pedestrians to another facility, the current guidelines require at least one of the direct connections to be accessible.  The final revised guidelines require all of the direct connections to be accessible.  The vertical distances between the levels in a parking garage are typically less than the vertical distances between the stories in the facility to which it is connected so that not every level of the parking garage has a direct connection to a story in the facility.  For example, a parking garage with five levels may have direct connections to only two or three stories of another facility.  Making the direct connections between the parking garage and another facility accessible will not typically present a difficult design challenge and is expected to have minimal impacts.

6.6  Alterations to Existing Elevators

 

Table 6.6 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping requirement for alterations to existing elevators. 

 

Table 6.6 – Alterations to Existing Elevators (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.1.6  Accessible Buildings: Alterations.

 

(1)  General.  Alterations to existing buildings and facilities shall comply with the following: . . .

 

(b)  If existing elements, spaces, or common areas are altered, then each such altered element, space, feature, or area shall comply with the applicable provisions of 4.1.1 to 4.1.3 Minimum Requirements (for New Construction). . . .

206.6.1 Existing Elevators.  Where elements of existing elevators are altered, the same element shall also be altered in all elevators that are programmed to respond to the same hall call control as the altered elevator and shall comply with the requirements of 407 for the altered element.

 

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Section 3408.7.1 has an equivalent requirement for alterations to existing elevators.

 

IBC 2003:  Section 3409.7.2 has an equivalent requirement for alterations to existing elevators.

 

When a single space or element is altered, the current guidelines require the space or element to be made accessible.  When an element in one elevator is altered, the final revised guidelines require the same element to be altered in all elevators that are programmed to respond to the same call button as the altered elevator to ensure that when an individual with a disability presses a call button, an accessible elevator will arrive, and not an inaccessible one. 

 

The revision is expected to have minimal impacts since all the elevators in a bank are typically upgraded at the same time when elevators are altered as part of a planned modernization project.  The final revised guidelines also contain exceptions to the technical requirements for elevators when existing elevators are altered that further minimize the impacts of the revision:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6.7  Accessible Means of Egress

 

Table 6.7 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping requirements for accessible means of egress. 

 

Table 6.7 – Accessible Means of Egress (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.1.3  Accessible Buildings: New Construction.  Accessible buildings and facilities shall meet the following minimum requirements: . . .

 

(9)  In buildings or facilities, or portions of buildings or facilities, required to be accessible, accessible means of egress shall be provided in the same number as required for exits by local building/life safety regulations.  Where a required exit from an occupiable level above or below a level of accessible exit discharge is not accessible, an area of rescue assistance shall be provided on each such level (in a number equal to that of inaccessible required exits).  Areas of rescue assistance shall comply with 4.3.11.  A horizontal exit meeting the requirements of local building/life safety regulations, shall satisfy the requirement for an area of rescue assistance.

Exception: Areas of rescue assistance are not required in buildings or facilities having a supervised automatic sprinkler system.

 

(16)  Building Signage. . . .

 

(b)  Other signs which provide direction to or information about functional spaces of the building shall comply with 4.30.1, 4.30.4, 4.30.5, and 4.30.6. . . .

 

4.1.6  Accessible Buildings: Alterations.

 

(1)  General.  Alterations to existing buildings and facilities shall comply with the following: . . .

 

(g)  In alterations, the requirements of 4.1.3(9) . . . do not apply.

 

4.3.10  Egress.  Accessible routes serving any accessible space or element shall also serve as a means of egress for emergencies or connect to an accessible area of rescue assistance.

207.1  General.  Means of egress shall comply with section 1003.2.13 of the International Building Code (2000 edition and 2001 Supplement) or section 1007 of the International Building Code (2003 edition)  (incorporated by reference, see “Referenced Standards” in Chapter 1).

Exceptions:  1.  Where means of egress are permitted by local building or life safety codes to share a common path of egress travel, accessible means of egress shall be permitted to share a common path of egress travel. . . .

 

216.4  Means of Egress.  Signs for means of egress shall comply with 216.4.

 

216.4.1  Exit Doors.  Doors at exit passageways, exit discharge, and exit stairways shall be identified by tactile signs complying with 703.1, 703.2, and 703.5.

 

216.4.2  Areas of Refuge.  Signs required by section 1003.2.13.5.4 of the International Building Code (2000 edition) or section 1007.6.4 of the International Building Code (2003 edition) (incorporated by reference, see “Referenced Standards” in Chapter 1) to provide instructions in areas of refuge shall comply with 703.5.

 

216.4.3  Directional Signs.  Signs required by section 1003.2.13.6 of the International Building Code (2000 edition) or section 1007.7 of the International Building Code (2003 edition) (incorporated by reference, see “Referenced Standards” in Chapter 1) to provide directions to accessible means of egress shall comply with 703.5

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Section 1003.2.13 has equivalent requirements for accessible means of egress.

 

IBC 2003:  Section 1007 has equivalent requirements for accessible means of egress.

 

The current guidelines establish scoping and technical requirements for accessible means of egress.  The final revised guidelines reference the International Building Code for scoping and technical requirements for accessible means of egress. 

 

The current guidelines require the same number of accessible means of egress to be provided as the number of exits required by applicable building and fire codes.  The International Building Code requires at least one accessible means of egress; and at least two accessible means of egress, where more than one means of egress is required by other sections of the code.  The revision is expected to have minimal impacts since the model fire and life safety codes, which are adopted by all the States, contain equivalent requirements with respect to the number of accessible means of egress.[120]

 

The current guidelines require areas of rescue assistance or horizontal exits in facilities with stories above or below the exit discharge level.  Areas of rescue assistance are spaces, which have direct access to an exit, where individuals who are unable to use stairs can go to register a call for assistance and wait for evacuation.  The International Building Code requires an evacuation elevator designed with standby power and other safety features that can be used for emergency evacuation of individuals with disabilities in facilities with four or more stories above or below the exit discharge level, and allows exit stairways and evacuation elevators to be used as an accessible means of egress in conjunction with areas of refuge or horizontal exits.  The revision is expected to have minimal impacts since the model fire and life safety codes contain equivalent requirements with respect to evacuation elevators.[121]

 

The current guidelines exempt facilities equipped with a supervised automatic sprinkler system from providing areas of rescue assistance, and also exempt alterations to existing facilities from providing an accessible means of egress.  The International Building Code exempts buildings equipped with a supervised automatic sprinkler system from certain technical requirements for areas of refuge, and also exempts alterations to existing facilities from providing an accessible means of egress. 

 

The current guidelines require signs which provide direction to or information about functional spaces to meet certain technical requirements.  Signs used for means of egress are covered by this scoping requirement.  The final revised guidelines specifically identify signs used for means of egress and require the signs to meet certain technical requirements. 

 

6.8  Passenger Loading Zones

 

Table 6.8 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping and technical requirements for passenger loading zones. 

 

Table 6.8 – Passenger Loading Zones (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.1.2  Accessible Sites and Exterior Facilities:  New Construction.  An accessible site shall meet the following minimum requirements: . . .

 

(5) . . . (c)  If passenger loading zones are provided, then at least one passenger loading zone shall comply with 4.6.

 

4.6.6  Passenger Loading Zones.  Passenger loading zones shall provide an access aisle at least 60 in (1525 mm) wide and 20 ft (240 in) (6100 mm) long adjacent and parallel to the vehicle pull-up space (see Fig. 10).  If there are curbs between the access aisle and the vehicle pull-up space, then a curb ramp complying with 4.7 shall be provided.  Vehicle standing spaces and access aisles shall be level with surface slopes not exceeding 1:50 (2%) in all directions.

209.2.1 Passenger Loading Zones.  Passenger loading zones, except those required to comply with 209.2.2 and 209.2.3, shall provide at least one passenger loading zone complying with 503 in every continuous 100 linear feet (30 m) of loading zone space, or fraction thereof.

 

503.2  Vehicle Pull-Up Space.  Passenger loading zones shall provide a vehicular pull-up space 96 inches (2440 mm) wide minimum and 20 feet (6100 mm) long minimum.

 

503.3  Access Aisle.  Passenger loading zones shall provide access aisles complying with 503.3 adjacent to the vehicle pull-up space.  Access aisles shall adjoin an accessible route and shall not overlap the vehicular way.

 

503.3.1  Width.  Access aisles serving vehicle pull-up spaces shall be 60 inches (1525 mm) wide minimum.

 

503.3.2  Length.  Access aisles shall extend the full length of the vehicle pull-up spaces they serve.

 

503.3.3 Marking.  Access aisles shall be marked so as to discourage parking in them.

 

503.4  Floor and Ground Surfaces.  Vehicle pull-up spaces and access aisles serving them shall comply with 302.  Access aisles shall be at the same level as the vehicle pull-up space they serve.  Changes in level are not permitted.

Exception: Slopes not steeper than 1:48 shall be permitted.

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Section 1106.6 has a similar requirement for passenger loading zones.

 

IBC 2003:  Sections 1106.7.1 and 1106.7.2 have equivalent requirements for passenger loading zones.

 

ICC/ANSI A117.1-1998:  Sections 503.3 and 503.4 have equivalent requirements for vehicle pull-up spaces, access aisles, and floor and ground surfaces.

 

Where passenger loading zones are provided, the current guidelines require at least one passenger loading zone to be accessible.  The final revised guidelines require facilities such as airport passenger terminals that have long, continuous passenger loading zones to provide one accessible passenger loading zone in every continuous 100 linear feet of loading zone space.  The final revised guidelines include technical requirements for the vehicle pull-up space (96 inches wide minimum and 20 feet long minimum).  Accessible passenger loading zones must have an access aisle that is 60 inches wide minimum and extends the full length of the vehicle pull-up space.  Under the current guidelines, the access aisle may be on the same level as the vehicle pull-up space, or on the sidewalk with a curb ramp.  The final revised guidelines require the access aisle to be on the same level as the vehicle pull-up space and to be marked so as to discourage parking in the access aisle.

 

The revision is expected to have minimal impacts since the overall width of the vehicular way or the pedestrian way does not have to be increased to provide an access aisle.  If the sidewalk is wide, the sidewalk can be narrowed 5 feet where the access aisle is provided.  If the sidewalk is narrow, the sidewalk can be depressed where the access aisle is provided.

 

6.9  Valet Parking and Mechanical Access Parking Garages

 

Table 6.9 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping requirements for parking facilities that provide valet parking services and for mechanical access parking garages. 

 

Table 6.9 – Valet Parking and Mechanical Access Parking Garages (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.1.2  Accessible Sites and Exterior Facilities: New Construction.  An accessible site shall meet the following minimum requirements: . . .

 

(5)(a)  If parking spaces are provided for self-parking by employees or visitors, or both, then accessible parking spaces complying with 4.6 shall be provided in each such parking area in conformance with the table below.  . . .

 

(e)  Valet Parking.  Valet parking facilities shall provide a passenger loading zone complying with 4.6 located on an accessible route to the entrance of the facility.  Paragraphs 5(a), 5(b), and  5(d) of this section do not apply to valet parking facilities.

208.2  Minimum Number.  Parking spaces complying with 502 shall be provided in accordance with Table 208.2, except as required by 208.2.1, 208.2.2, and 208.2.3. . . .

 

209.4  Valet Parking.  Parking facilities that provide valet parking services shall provide at least one passenger loading zone complying with 503.

 

209.5  Mechanical Access Parking Garages.  Mechanical access parking garages shall provide at least one passenger loading zone complying with 503 at vehicle drop-off and vehicle pick-up areas.

 

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Sections 1106.1 and 1106.6.2 have equivalent requirements for valet parking facilities.

 

IBC 2003:  Sections 1106.1 and 1106.7.3 have equivalent requirements for valet parking facilities.

 

The current guidelines and the final revised guidelines require parking facilities that provide valet parking services to have an accessible passenger loading zone.  The final revised guidelines also require mechanical access parking garages to have an accessible passenger loading zone.[122]  The current guidelines contain an exception that exempts valet parking facilities from providing accessible parking spaces.  The final revised guidelines do not include the exception.  The revision is expected to have minimal impacts since the exception in the current guidelines applies to facilities that provide valet parking services exclusively and is rarely used. 

 

6.10     Stairs

 

Table 6.10 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping and technical requirements for stairs. 

 

Table 6.10 – Stairs (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.1.3  Accessible Buildings: New Construction.  Accessible buildings and facilities shall meet the following minimum requirements: . . . 

 

(4)  Interior and exterior stairs connecting levels that are not connected by an elevator, ramp, or other accessible means of vertical access shall comply with 4.9.

 

4.9.2  Treads and Risers.  On any given flight of stairs, all steps shall have uniform riser heights and uniform tread widths.  Stair treads shall be no less than 11 in (280 mm) wide, measured from riser to riser (see Fig. 18(a)).  . . .

210.1 General.  Interior and exterior stairs that are part of a means of egress shall comply with 504.

Exceptions: . . .

2.  In alterations, stairs between levels that are connected by an accessible route shall not be required to comply with 504 except that handrails complying with 505 shall be provided when the stairs are altered. . . .

 

504.2 Treads and Risers.  All steps on a flight of stairs shall have uniform riser heights and uniform tread depths.  Risers shall be 4 inches (100 mm) high minimum and 7 inches (180 mm) high maximum.  Treads shall be 11 inches (280 mm) deep minimum.

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Sections 1003.3.3.3 and 1003.3.3.3.1 have equivalent requirements for stairs that are part of a means of egress. 

 

IBC 2003:  Sections 1009.3 and 1009.3.1 have equivalent requirements for stairs that are part of a means of egress.

 

ICC/ANSI A117.1-1998:  Section 504.2 has equivalent requirements for treads and risers.

 

The current guidelines require stairs serving levels that are not connected by an accessible route to comply with the technical requirements for stairs.  The final revised guidelines require stairs that are part of a means of egress to comply with the technical requirements for stairs, including treads and risers.  The current guidelines and the final revised guidelines require uniform riser heights and tread depths.  The current guidelines do not specify a riser height.  The final revised guidelines specify a riser height of 4 inches minimum and 7 inches maximum.  Both the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines specify a tread depth of 11 inches minimum.  The revision is expected to have minimal impacts since 7 inch maximum risers and 11 inch minimum treads (“7/11” stairs) are widely accepted as the standard for stairs.[123]   

 

The final revised guidelines include an exception for alterations to existing facilities that exempt stairs serving levels that are connected by an accessible route from the requirements for uniform treads and risers.

6.11     Drinking Fountains

 

Table 6.11 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping and technical requirements for drinking fountains. 

 

Table 6.11 – Drinking Fountains (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.1.3  Accessible Buildings:  New Construction.  Accessible buildings and facilities shall meet the following minimum requirements: . . . 

 

(10)  Drinking Fountains.

 

(a)  Where only one drinking fountain is provided on a floor there shall be a drinking fountain that is accessible to individuals who use wheelchairs in accordance with 4.15 and one accessible to those who have difficulty bending or stooping. . . .

 

(b)  Where more than one drinking fountain or water cooler is provided on a floor, 50 percent of those provided shall comply with 4.15 . . . .

 

4.15.2  Spout Height.  Spouts shall be no higher than 36 in (915 mm), measured from the floor or ground surfaces to the spout outlet (see Fig. 27 (a)).

 

4.15.5  Clearances.

 

(1)  Wall and post-mounted cantilevered units shall have a clear knee space between the bottom of the apron and the floor or ground at least 27 in (685 mm) high, 30 in (760 mm) wide, and 17 in to 19 in (430 mm to 485 mm) deep (see Fig. 27 (a) and (b)).  Such units shall also have a minimum clear floor space 30 in by 48 in (760 mm by 1220 mm) to allow a person in a wheelchair to approach the unit facing forward.

Exception:  These clearances shall not be required at units used primarily by children ages 12 and younger where clear floor space for a parallel approach complying with 4.2.4 is provided and where the spout is no higher than 30 in (760 mm), measured from the floor or ground surface to the spout outlet.

 

(2)  Free-standing or built-in units not having a clear  space under them shall have a clear floor space at least 30 in by 48 in (760 mm by 1220 mm) that allows a person in a wheelchair to make a parallel approach to the unit (see Fig. 27 (c) and (d)).  This clear floor space shall comply with 4.2.4.

211.1 General.  Where drinking fountains are provided on an exterior site, on a floor, or within a secured area they shall be provided in accordance with 211. . . .

 

211.2 Minimum Number.  No fewer than two drinking fountains shall be provided.  One drinking fountain shall comply with 602.1 through 602.6 and one drinking fountain shall comply with 602.7.

Exception:  Where a single drinking fountain complies with 602.1 through 602.6 and 602.7, it shall be permitted to be substituted for two separate drinking fountains.

 

211.3 More Than Minimum Number.  Where more than the minimum number of drinking fountains specified in 211.2 are provided, 50 percent of the total number of drinking fountains provided shall comply with 602.1 through 602.6, and 50 percent of the total number of drinking fountains provided shall comply with 602.7.

Exception:  Where 50 percent of the drinking fountains yields a fraction, 50 percent shall be permitted to be rounded up or down provided that the total number of drinking fountains complying with 211 equals 100 percent of drinking fountains.

 

602.2 Clear Floor Space.  Units shall have a clear floor or ground clearance complying with 305 positioned for a forward approach and centered on the unit.  Knee and toe clearance complying with 306 shall be provided.

Exception:  A parallel approach complying with 305 shall be permitted at units for children's use where the spout is 30 inches (760 mm) maximum above the finish floor or ground and is 3½ inches (90 mm) maximum from the front edge of the unit, including bumpers.

 

602.4  Spout Height.  Spout outlets shall be 36 inches (915 mm) maximum above the finish floor or ground.

 

602.7  Drinking Fountains for Standing Persons.  Spout outlets for drinking fountains for standing persons shall be 38 inches (965 mm) minimum and 43 inches (1090 m) maximum above the finish floor or ground.

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Section 1108.5 has a similar requirement for the number of accessible drinking fountains.

 

IBC 2003:  Section 1109.5 has a similar requirement for the number of accessible drinking fountains.

 

ICC/ANSI A117.1-1998:  Section 602.2 has a similar requirement for clear floor space at drinking fountains.

 

The current guidelines and the final revised guidelines require drinking fountains to be provided at a wheelchair height and at a standing height.  The current guidelines require wall and post-mounted cantilevered drinking fountains mounted at a wheelchair height to provide clear floor space for a forward approach with knee and toe clearance, and free-standing or built-in drinking fountains to provide clear floor space for a parallel approach.  The final revised guidelines require drinking fountains mounted at a wheelchair height to provide clear floor space for a forward approach with knee and toe clearance, and include an exception for a parallel approach for drinking fountains used by children. The final revised guidelines also include a technical requirement for drinking fountains for standing persons.  The revision is expected to have minimal impacts since drinking fountains mounted at a wheelchair height that provide clear floor space for a forward approach with knee and toe clearance are common in new construction, and generally cost less than other types of drinking fountains. 

6.12     Sinks

 

Table 6.12 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping and technical requirements for sinks.

 

Table 6.12 – Sinks (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.1.1  Application.

 

(1)  General.  All areas of newly designed or newly constructed buildings and facilities and altered portions of existing buildings and facilities shall comply with section 4, unless otherwise provided in this section or as modified in a special application section.

 

4.24.1  General.  Sinks required to be accessible by 4.1 shall comply with 4.24.

 

4.24.3  Knee Clearance.  Knee clearance that is at least 27 in (685 mm) high, 30 in (760 mm) wide, and 19 in (485 mm) deep shall be provided underneath sinks.

 

4.24.5 Clear Floor Space.  A clear floor space at least 30 in by 48 in (760 mm by 1220 mm) complying with 4.2.4 shall be provided in front of a sink to allow forward approach.  The clear floor space shall be on an accessible route and shall extend a maximum of 19 in (485 mm) underneath the sink (see Fig. 32).

 

9.2.2  Minimum Requirements.  An accessible unit, sleeping room or suite shall be on an accessible route complying with 4.3 and have the following accessible elements and spaces. . . .

 

(7)  Kitchens, Kitchenettes, or Wet Bars.  When provided as an accessory to a sleeping room or suite, kitchens, kitchenettes, wet bars, or similar amenities shall be accessible. Clear floor space for a front or parallel approach to cabinets, counters, sinks, and appliances shall be provided to comply with 4.2.4. . . .

212.3 Sinks.  Where sinks are provided, at least 5 percent, but no fewer than one, of each type provided in each accessible room or space shall comply with 606.

Exception:  Mop or service sinks shall not be required to comply with 212.3.

 

606.2 Clear Floor Space.  A clear floor space complying with 305, positioned for a forward approach, and knee and toe clearance complying with 306 shall be provided.

Exceptions:  1.  A parallel approach complying with 305 shall be permitted to a kitchen sink in a space where a cook top or conventional range is not provided and to wet bars.  . . .

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Section 1108.3 has an equivalent requirement for sinks.

 

IBC 2003:  Section 1109.3 has an equivalent requirement for sinks.

 

ICC/ANSI A117.1-1998:  Section 606.2 has an equivalent requirement for clear floor space at sinks and an equivalent exception for sinks without a cook top or conventional range.

 

 

The current guidelines contain technical requirements for sinks, but do not have specific scoping requirements for sinks in all accessible spaces.[124]  The final revised guidelines require at least 5 percent of sinks in each accessible space to comply with the technical requirements for sinks.  The technical requirements address clear floor space, height, faucets, and exposed pipes and surfaces.  The current guidelines and the final revised guidelines require the clear floor space at sinks to be positioned for a forward approach, and knee and toe clearance to be provided under the sink.  The current guidelines allow the clear floor space at kitchen sinks and wet bars in hotel guest rooms with mobility features to be positioned for either a forward approach with knee and toe clearance, or for a parallel approach because the rooms usually do not have cooking facilities.  The final revised guidelines include a broader exception that permits the clear floor space to be positioned for a parallel approach at kitchen sinks in any space where a cook top or conventional range is not provided, and at a wet bar.

 

The revision is expected to have minimal impacts since the base cabinet under kitchen sinks is usually eliminated to provide knee and toe clearance under the sink when the clear floor space is positioned for a forward approach, which offsets the cost for the lowered sink counter height and the pipe insulation. 

6.13     Public Telephone Volume Controls[125]

 

Table 6.13 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping and technical requirements for public telephone volume controls. 

 

Table 6.13 – Public Telephone Volume Controls (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.1.3  Accessible Buildings: New Construction.  Accessible buildings and facilities shall meet the following minimum requirements: . . . 

 

(17)  Public Telephones. . . .

 

(b)  All telephones required to be accessible and complying with 4.31.2 through 4.32.8 shall be equipped with a volume control.  In addition, 25 percent, but never less than one, of all other public telephones provided shall be equipped with a volume control . . . .

 

4.30.7 Symbols of Accessibility. . . .

 

(2)  Volume Control Telephones.  Telephones required to have a volume control by 4.1.3 (17) (b) shall be identified by a sign containing a depiction of a telephone handset with radiating sound waves.

 

4.31.5  Hearing Aid Compatible and Volume Control Telephones Required by 4.1. . . .

 

(2)  Volume controls capable of a minimum of 12 dba and a maximum of 18 dba above normal, shall be provided in accordance with 4.1.3.  If an automatic reset is provided then 18 dba may be exceeded. 

217.3  Volume Controls.  All public telephones shall have volume controls complying with 704.3.

 

704.3  Volume Control Telephones.  Public telephones required to have volume controls shall be equipped with a receive volume control that provides a gain adjustable up to 20 dB minimum.  For incremental volume control, provide at least one intermediate step of 12 dB of gain minimum.  An automatic reset shall be provided.

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Section E1106.3 of Appendix E has a similar requirement for public telephones with volume controls.

 

IBC 2003:  Section E106.3 of Appendix E has an equivalent requirement for public telephones with volume controls.

 

ICC/ANSI A117.1-1998:  Section 704.3 has an equivalent requirement for level of volume control.

 

The current guidelines require all wheelchair accessible public telephones and 25 percent of all other public telephones to have volume controls, and to be identified by signs.  The final revised guidelines require all public telephones to have volume controls, and delete the requirement for identifying signs.  The current guidelines require volume control telephones to provide a minimum gain of 12 dB and a maximum gain of 18 dB.  The final revised guidelines require a gain up to 20 dB minimum and an automatic reset. 

 

The revision is expected to have minimal impacts since the scoping and technical requirements in the final revised guidelines are consistent with guidelines and standards issued by the Access Board under section 255 of the Telecommunications Act of 1998 and section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, which require all new telephones to have volume controls.[126] 

6.14     Dispersion of Wheelchair Spaces and Lines of Sight in Assembly Areas[127]

 

Table 6.14 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revisions to the guidelines with respect to the scoping and technical requirements for dispersion of wheelchair spaces and lines of sight in assembly areas. 

 

Table 6.14 – Dispersion of Wheelchair Spaces and Lines of Sight in Assembly Areas (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.33.3  Placement of Wheelchair Locations.  Wheelchair areas shall be an integral part of any fixed seating plan and shall be provided so as to provide people with physical disabilities a choice of admission prices and lines of sight comparable to those for members of the general public.  They shall adjoin an accessible route that also serves as a means of egress in case of emergency. . . When the seating capacity exceeds 300, wheelchair spaces shall be provided in more than one location. . . .

Exception:  Accessible viewing positions may  be clustered for bleachers, balconies, and other areas having sight lines that require slopes greater than 5 percent.  Equivalent accessible viewing positions may be located on levels having accessible egress.

221.2.2  Integration.  Wheelchair spaces shall be an integral part of the seating plan.

 

221.2.3  Lines of Sight and Dispersion.  Wheelchair spaces shall provide lines of sight complying with 802.2 and shall comply with 221.2.3.  In providing lines of sight, wheelchair spaces shall be dispersed.  Wheelchair spaces shall provide spectators with choices of seating locations and viewing angles that are substantially equivalent to, or better than, the choices of seating locations and viewing angles available to all other spectators.  When the number of wheelchair spaces required by 221.2.1 has been meet, further dispersion shall not be required. . . .

 

221.2.3.1  Horizontal Dispersion.  Wheelchair spaces shall be dispersed horizontally. 

Exceptions:  1.  Horizontal dispersion shall not be required in assembly areas with 300 or fewer seats if  companion seats required by 221.3 and wheelchair spaces are located within the 2nd or 3rd quartile of the total row length.  Intermediate aisles shall be included in determining the total row length.  If the row length in the 2nd and 3rd quartile of a row is insufficient to accommodate the required number of companion seats and wheelchair spaces, the additional companion seats and wheelchair spaces shall be permitted to be located in the 1st and 4th quartile of the row.

2.  In row seating, two wheelchair spaces shall be permitted to be located side-by-side.

 

221.2.3.2  Vertical Dispersion.  Wheelchair spaces shall be dispersed vertically at varying distances from the screen, performance area, or playing field.  In addition, wheelchair spaces shall be located in each balcony or mezzanine that is located on an accessible route.

Exceptions:  1.  Vertical dispersion shall not be required in assembly areas with 300 or fewer seats if wheelchair spaces provide viewing angles that are equivalent to, or better than, the average viewing angle provided in the facility.

2.  In bleachers, wheelchair spaces shall not be required to be provided in rows other than rows at points of entry to bleacher seating.

 

802.2 Lines of Sight.  Lines of sight to the screen, performance area, or playing field for spectators in wheelchair spaces shall comply with 802.2.

 

802.2.1 Lines of Sight Over Seated Spectators.  Where spectators are expected to remain seated during events, spectators in wheelchair spaces shall be afforded lines of sight complying with 802.2.1.

 

802.2.1.1 Lines of Sight Over Heads.  Where spectators are provided lines of sight over the heads of spectators seated in the first row in front of their seats, spectators seated in wheelchair spaces shall be afforded lines of sight over the heads of seated spectators in the first row in front of wheelchair spaces.

 

802.2.1.2 Lines of Sight Between Heads.  Where spectators are provided lines of sight over the shoulders and between the heads of spectators seated in the first row in front of their seats, spectators seated in wheelchair spaces shall be afforded lines of sight over the shoulders and between the heads of seated spectators in the first row in front of wheelchair spaces.

 

802.2.2 Lines of Sight Over Standing Spectators.  Where spectators are expected to stand during events, spectators in wheelchair spaces shall be afforded lines of sight complying with 802.2.2.

 

802.2.2.1 Lines of Sight Over Heads.  Where standing spectators are provided lines of sight over the heads of spectators standing in the first row in front of their seats, spectators seated in wheelchair spaces shall be afforded lines of sight over the heads of standing spectators in the first row in front of wheelchair spaces.

 

802.2.2.2 Lines of Sight Between Heads.  Where standing spectators are provided lines of sight over the shoulders and between the heads of spectators standing in the first row in front of their seats, spectators seated in wheelchair spaces shall be afforded lines of sight over the shoulders and between the heads of standing spectators in the first row in front of wheelchair spaces. 

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Section 1107.2.3 has similar requirements for dispersion of wheelchair spaces.

 

IBC 2003:  Section 1108.2.4 has similar requirements for dispersion of wheelchair spaces.

 

ICC/ANSI A117.1-1998:  Section 802.8 has similar requirements for lines of sight.

 

The current guidelines require wheelchair spaces to be an integral part of any fixed seating plan in assembly areas and to be dispersed, when the seating capacity exceeds 300.  The current guidelines also require wheelchair spaces to provide individuals with disabilities lines of sight comparable to the sightlines available to other spectators in assembly areas.  The Department of Justice, which adopted the current guidelines as enforceable standards, interprets comparable sightlines as requiring wheelchair spaces in sports stadiums and arenas to provide lines of sight over standing spectators to the playing field, where spectators are expected to stand during events.[128]  The Department of Justice also interprets comparable sightlines as requiring wheelchair spaces in stadium-style movie theaters to provide viewing angles comparable to those provided to other spectators.[129] 

 

The final revised guidelines add specific technical requirements for providing sightlines over seated and standing spectators; and require wheelchair spaces to provide individuals with disabilities choices of seating locations and viewing angles that are substantially equivalent to, or better than, the choices of seating locations and viewing angles available to other spectators.  The final revised guidelines also clarify the dispersion requirements.  Wheelchair spaces must be dispersed horizontally and vertically.  The final revised guidelines include exceptions for assembly areas that have 300 or fewer seats, where the wheelchair spaces are located in the 2nd or 3rd quartile of the total row length and provide viewing angles that are equivalent to, or better than, the average viewing angle provided in the facility.  The revisions are expected to have minimal impacts since they are consistent with the Department of Justice’s interpretations of the current guidelines. 

 

The current guidelines contain an exception that permits wheelchair spaces to be clustered in steeply sloped bleachers and balconies.  The final revised guidelines require wheelchair spaces to be located at the entry points to bleachers, and in each balcony or mezzanine that is on an accessible route.

6.15     Lawn Seating in Assembly Areas

 

Table 6.15 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping requirement for lawn seating in assembly areas. 

 

Table 6.15 – Lawn Seating in Assembly Areas (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.1.1  Application.

 

(1)  General.  All areas of newly designed or newly constructed buildings and facilities and altered portions of existing buildings and facilities shall comply with section 4, unless otherwise provided in this section or as modified in a special application section.

221.5 Lawn Seating.  Lawn seating areas and exterior overflow seating areas, where fixed seats are not provided, shall connect to an accessible route.

 

Model Codes & Standards

No requirements for lawn seating in assembly areas.

 

The current guidelines require all areas of newly constructed facilities to be accessible, but do not contain a specific scoping requirement for lawn seating in assembly areas.  The final revised guidelines specifically require lawn seating areas and exterior overflow seating areas without fixed seats to connect to an accessible route.  The revision is expected to have minimal impacts since the requirement can be met by locating an accessible route serving the fixed seating areas along a portion of the lawn seating area.  The accessible route does not have to extend through the lawn seating area. 

6.16     New Construction of Federal, State, and Local Government Housing

 

Table 6.16 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping requirements for new construction of Federal, State, and local government housing.  The current guidelines refer to UFAS.

 

Table 6.16 – New Construction of Federal, State, and Local Government Housing (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.1.4  Occupancy Classifications.  Buildings and facilities shall comply with these standards to the extent noted in this section for various occupancy classifications, unless otherwise noted by a special application section. . . .

 

(11) Residential.  Residential occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or portion thereof, for sleeping accommodations when not classed as an institutional occupancy.  Residential occupancies shall comply with the requirements of 4.1 and 4.34 except as follows: . . .

 

(b)  Residential occupancies in multiple dwellings where the occupants are primarily permanent in nature, including:

 

Facilities

Multifamily housing

(Apartment houses):

 

 

Application

Federally assisted

5 percent of the total, or at least one unit, whichever is greater, in projects of 15 or more dwelling units . . . .

Federally owned

5 percent of the total, or at least one unit, whichever is greater.

Dormitories

5 percent of the total, or at least one unit, whichever is greater.

 

(c)  Residential occupancies in one (1) and two (2) family dwellings where the occupancies are primarily permanent in nature and not classified as preceding residential categories or as institutional.

 

 

Facilities

One and two family dwelling:

 

 

Application

Federally assisted, rental

5 percent of the total, or at least one unit, whichever is greater, in projects of 15 or more dwelling units . . . .

Federally assisted, home ownership

 

To be determined by home buyer.

Federally owned

5 percent of the total, or at least one unit, whichever is greater.

233.1 General.  Facilities with residential dwelling units shall comply with 233.

 

233.2 Residential Dwelling Units Provided by Entities Subject to HUD Section 504 Regulations.  Where facilities with residential dwelling units are provided by entities subject to regulations issued by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended, such entities shall provide residential dwelling units with mobility features complying with 809.2 through 809.4 in a number required by the applicable HUD regulations.  Residential dwelling units required to provide mobility features complying with 809.2 through 809.4 shall be on an accessible route as required by 206.  In addition, such entities shall provide residential dwelling units with communication features complying with 809.5 in a number required by the applicable HUD regulations.  Entities subject to 233.2 shall not be required to comply with 233.3.

 

233.3 Residential Dwelling Units Provided by Entities Not Subject to HUD Section 504 Regulations.  Facilities with residential dwelling units provided by entities not subject to regulations issued by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended, shall comply with 233.3.

 

233.3.1 Minimum Number: New Construction.  Newly constructed facilities with residential dwelling units shall comply with 233.3.1.

Exception:  Where facilities contain 15 or fewer residential dwelling units, the requirements of 233.3.1.1 and 233.3.1.2 shall apply to the total number of residential dwelling units that are constructed under a single contract, or are developed as a whole, whether or not located on a common site.

 

233.3.1.1 Residential Dwelling Units with Mobility Features.  In facilities with residential dwelling units, at least 5 percent, but no fewer than one unit, of the total number of residential dwelling units shall provide mobility features complying with 809.2 through 809.4 and shall be on an accessible route as required by 206.

 

233.3.1.2 Residential Dwelling Units with Communication Features.  In facilities with residential dwelling units, at least 2 percent, but no fewer than one unit, of the total number of residential dwelling units shall provide communication features complying with 809.5.

 

233.3.2 Residential Dwelling Units for Sale.  Residential dwelling units offered for sale shall provide accessible features to the extent required by regulations issued by Federal agencies under the Americans with Disabilities Act or Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended.

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Section 1107.5.4 requires 2 percent of dwelling units in certain multi-family occupancies to comply with the requirements for Type A dwelling units in ICC/ANSI A117.1-1998.

 

IBC 2003:  Section 1107.6.2.1.1 requires 2 percent of dwelling units in certain multi-family occupancies to comply with the requirements for Type A dwelling units in ICC/ANSI A117.1-1998.

 

The current guidelines contain scoping requirements for the new construction of Federal, State, and local government housing required to comply with the Architectural Barriers Act and Americans with Disabilities Act.[130]  For federally owned housing, the current guidelines require 5 percent of newly constructed dwelling units to provide mobility features.  For federally assisted housing, the current guidelines require 5 percent of newly constructed dwelling units in projects of 15 or more dwelling units to provide mobility features.  The current guidelines do not define the term “project.”

 

The final revised guidelines differentiate between entities subject to the Department of Housing and Urban Development’s (HUD) regulations implementing section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act, and entities not subject to the HUD regulations.  The HUD regulations apply to recipients of Federal financial assistance through HUD, and require at least 5 percent of dwelling units in multi-family projects of five or more dwelling units to provide mobility features and at least 2 percent of the dwelling units to provide communication features.[131]  The HUD regulations define a project unique to its programs as “one or more residential structures . . . which are covered by a single contract for Federal financial assistance or application for assistance, or are treated as a whole for processing purposes, whether or not located on a common site.”[132]  To avoid any potential conflicts with the HUD regulations, the final revised guidelines require entities subject to the HUD regulations to comply with the scoping requirements in the HUD regulations, instead of the scoping requirements in the final revised guidelines.

 

For entities not subject to the HUD regulations, the final revised guidelines require at least 5 percent of the dwelling units in residential facilities to provide mobility features, and at least 2 percent of the dwelling units to provide communication features.  The final revised guidelines define facilities in terms of buildings located on a site.[133] The final revised guidelines permit facilities that contain 15 or fewer dwelling units to apply the scoping requirements to all the dwelling units that are constructed under a single contract, or are developed as whole, whether or not located on a common site.

 

The final revised guidelines defer to the Department of Justice and agencies responsible for issuing regulations under section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act to determine the extent to which accessible features are to be provided in dwelling units offered for sale.

 

The scoping requirements in the final revised guidelines for new construction of dwelling units with mobility features are sufficiently similar to the current guidelines that the impacts are expected to be minimal.  The technical requirements in the final revised guidelines for dwelling units with communication features will have monetary impacts and are further discussed in Chapter 7.14.

6.17     Alterations to Federal, State, and Local Government Housing

 

Table 6.17 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping requirements for alterations to Federal, State, and local government housing.  The current guidelines refer to UFAS.

 

Table 6.17 – Alterations to Federal, State, and Local Government Housing (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.16  Accessible Buildings: Alterations.

 

(1)  General.  Alterations to existing buildings and facilities shall comply with the following:

 

(a)  If existing elements, spaces, essential features, or common areas are altered, then each such altered element, space, feature, or area shall comply with the applicable provisions of 4.1.1 to 4.1.4 of 4.1, Minimum Requirements. . . .

 

(c)  If alterations of single elements, when considered together, amount to an alteration of a space of a building or facility, the entire space shall be made accessible. . . .

 

(2)  Where a building or facility is vacated and it is totally altered, then it shall be altered to comply with 4.1.1 to 4.1.5 of 4.1, Minimum Requirements, except to the extent where it is structurally impracticable.

 

(3)  Where substantial alteration occurs to a building or facility, then each element or space that is altered or added shall comply with the applicable provisions of 4.1.1 to 4.1.4 of 4.1, Minimum Requirements, except to the extent where it is structurally impracticable.  The altered building or facility shall contain:

 

(a)  At least one accessible route complying with 4.3, Accessible Route, and 4.1.6(a);

 

(b)  At least one accessible entrance complying with 4.14, Entrances.  If additional entrances are altered then they shall comply with 4.1.6(a); and

 

(c)  The following toilet facilities, whichever is greater:

 

(i)  At least one toilet facility for each sex in the altered building complying with 4.22, Toilet Rooms; and 4.23, Bathrooms, Bathing Facilities, and Shower Rooms.

 

(ii)  At least one toilet facility for each sex on each substantially altered floor, where such facilities are provided, complying with 4.22, Toilet Rooms; and 4.23, Bathrooms, Bathing Facilities, and Shower Rooms.

 

(d)  In making the determination as to what constitutes “substantial alteration,” the agency issuing standards for the facility shall consider the total cost of all alterations (including but not limited to electrical, plumbing, and structural changes) for a building or facility within any twelve (12) month period.  For guidance in implementing this provision, an alteration to any building or facility is to be considered substantial if the total cost for this twelve month period amounts to 50 percent or more of the full and fair cash value of the building as defined in 3.5. 

 

202.3 Alterations.  Where existing elements or spaces are altered, each altered element or space shall comply with the applicable requirements of Chapter 2.

Exceptions: . . . 

3.  Residential dwelling units not required to be accessible in compliance with a standard issued pursuant to the Americans with Disabilities Act or Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended, shall not be required to comply with 202.3.

 

202.4 Alterations Affecting Primary Function Areas.  In addition to the requirements of 202.3, an alteration that affects or could affect the usability of or access to an area containing a primary function shall be made so as to ensure that, to the maximum extent feasible, the path of travel to the altered area, including the rest rooms, telephones, and drinking fountains serving the altered area, are readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities, unless such alterations are disproportionate to the overall alterations in terms of cost and scope as determined under criteria established by the Attorney General. . . .

Exception:  Residential dwelling units shall not be required to comply with 202.4. 

 

233.3 Residential Dwelling Units Provided by Entities Not Subject to HUD Section 504 Regulations.  Facilities with residential dwelling units provided by entities not subject to regulations issued by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended, shall comply with 233.3.

 

233.3.4 Alterations.  Alterations shall comply with 233.3.4. 

Exception:  Where compliance with 809.2, 809.3, or 809.4 is technically infeasible, or where it is technically infeasible to provide an accessible route to a residential dwelling unit, the entity shall be permitted to alter or construct a comparable residential dwelling unit to comply with 809.2 through 809.4 provided that the minimum number of residential dwelling units required by 233.3.1.1 and 233.3.1.2, as applicable, is satisfied. 

 

233.3.4.1 Alterations to Vacated Buildings.  Where a building is vacated for the purposes of alteration, and the altered building contains more than 15 residential dwelling units, at least 5 percent of the residential dwelling units shall comply with 809.2 through 809.4 and shall be on an accessible route as required by 206.  In addition, at least 2 percent of the residential dwelling units shall comply with 809.5.

 

233.3.4.2 Alterations to Individual Residential Dwelling Units.  In individual residential dwelling units, where a bathroom or a kitchen is substantially altered, and at least one other room is altered, the requirements of 233.3.1 shall apply to the altered residential dwelling units until the total number of residential dwelling units complies with the minimum number required by 233.3.1.1 and 233.3.1.2.  Residential dwelling units required to comply with 233.3.1.1 shall be on an accessible route as required by 206.

Exception:  Where facilities contain 15 or fewer residential dwelling units, the requirements of 233.3.1.1 and 233.3.1.2 shall apply to the total number of residential dwelling units that are altered under a single contract, or are developed as a whole, whether or not located on a common site.

Model Codes & Standards

No requirements for alterations to dwelling units.

 

The current guidelines require Federal, State, and local government housing to comply with the general requirements for alterations to facilities.  Applying the general requirements for alterations to housing can result in partially accessible dwelling units where single elements or spaces in dwelling units are altered. 

 

The final revised guidelines contain specific scoping requirements for alterations to dwelling units by entities that are not subject to the Department of Housing and Urban Development’s (HUD) regulations implementing section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act.[134]  Dwelling units that are not required to be accessible are exempt from the general requirements for alterations to elements and spaces and for alterations to primary function areas.[135]

 

The scoping requirements for alterations to dwelling units are based on the general requirements in the current guidelines for alterations to facilities that are vacated and for substantially altered facilities, and are expected to have minimal impacts compared to the current guidelines.

 

 

 

As with new construction, the final revised guidelines permit facilities that contain 15 or fewer dwelling units to apply the scoping requirements to all the dwelling units that are altered under a single contract, or are developed as whole, whether or not located on a common site.  The final revised guidelines also permit a comparable dwelling unit to provide mobility features where it is not technically feasible for the altered dwelling unit to comply with the technical requirements. 

6.18     Accessible Routes in Dwelling Units with Mobility Features

 

Table 6.18 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping and technical requirements for accessible routes in dwelling units with mobility features.  The current guidelines refer to UFAS.

 

Table 6.18 – Accessible Routes in Dwelling Units with Mobility Features (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.34.1  General.  The requirements of 4.34 apply to dwelling units required to be accessible by 4.1.

 

4.34.2  Minimum Requirements.  An accessible dwelling unit shall be on an accessible route.  An accessible dwelling unit shall have the following accessible elements and spaces as a minimum: . . .

 

(3)  At least one accessible route complying with 4.3 shall connect the accessible entrances with all accessible spaces and elements within the dwelling units. . . .

 

(12)  At least one full bathroom shall comply with 4.34.5. . . .

 

(13)  The kitchen shall comply with 4.34.6.

 

(14)  If laundry facilities are provided, they shall comply with 4.34.7.

 

(15)  The following spaces shall be accessible and shall be on an accessible route: 

 

(a)  The living area.

 

(b)  The dining area.

 

(c)  The sleeping area, or the bedroom in one bedroom dwelling areas, or at least two bedrooms or sleeping spaces in dwelling units with two or more bedrooms.

233.3.5 Dispersion.  Residential dwelling units required to provide mobility features complying with 809.2 through 809.4 . . . shall be dispersed among the various types of residential dwelling units in the facility and shall provide choices of residential dwelling units comparable to, and integrated with, those available to other residents.

Exception:  Where multi-story residential dwelling units are one of the types of residential dwelling units provided, one-story residential dwelling units shall be permitted as a substitute for multi-story residential dwelling units where equivalent spaces and amenities are provided in the one-story residential dwelling unit.

 

809.1 General. . . . Residential dwelling units required to provide mobility features shall comply with 809.2 through 809.4 . . . .

 

809.2 Accessible Routes.  Accessible routes complying with Chapter 4 shall be provided within residential dwelling units in accordance with 809.2.

Exception:  Accessible routes shall not be required to or within unfinished attics or unfinished basements.

 

809.2.1 Location.  At least one accessible route shall connect all spaces and elements which are a part of the residential dwelling unit.  Where only one accessible route is provided, it shall not pass through bathrooms, closets, or similar spaces. 

 

809.4 Toilet Facilities and Bathing Facilities.  At least one toilet facility and bathing facility shall comply with 603 through 610.  At least one of each type of fixture provided shall comply with applicable requirements of 603 through 610.  Toilet and bathing fixtures required to comply with 603 through 610 shall be located in the same toilet and bathing area, such that travel between fixtures does not require travel between other parts of the residential dwelling unit.

Model Codes & Standards

ICC/ANSI A117.1-1998:  Section 1002.3 has an equivalent requirement for accessible routes in Type A dwelling units.

 

In dwelling units with mobility features, the current guidelines require the living area, kitchen and dining area, bedroom, bathroom, and laundry area where provided to be on an accessible route.  Where dwelling units have two or more bedrooms, at least two bedrooms are required to be on an accessible route.[136]

 

The final revised guidelines require all spaces and elements within dwelling units with mobility features to be on an accessible route.  The final revised guidelines exempt unfinished attics and unfinished basements from the accessible route requirement.  The final revised guidelines also include an exception to the dispersion requirement that permits single-story dwelling units or “flats” to be constructed, where multi-story dwelling units are provided.[137]  A “flat” eliminates the need to provide a residential elevator or platform lift to connect stories.  In multi-family construction, building codes and fire and life safety codes typically require one-hour minimum fire-resistance rated construction between dwelling units regardless of type.  There is little difference in the cost of constructing two adjacent two-story dwelling units, and a “flat” and a second dwelling unit on top.

6.19     Side Reach[138]

 

Table 6.19 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping requirements for some of the elements required to be placed within a forward or side reach, and the technical requirements for a side reach.
 

Table 6.19 – Side Reach (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.1.3  Accessible Buildings: New Construction.  Accessible buildings and facilities shall meet the following minimum requirements: . . . 

 

(13)  Controls and operating mechanisms in accessible spaces, along accessible routes, or as parts of accessible elements . . . shall comply with 4.27.

 

4.27.3  Height.  The highest operable part of controls, dispensers, receptacles, and other operable equipment shall be placed within at least one of the reach ranges specified in 4.2.5 or 4.2.6. . . .

 

4.2.6  Side Reach.  If the clear floor space allows a parallel approach by a person in a wheelchair, the maximum high side reach allowed shall be 54 in (1370 mm) and the low side reach shall be no less than 9 in (230 mm) above the floor (Fig. 6 (a) and (b)). 

[Note:  Figures 6 (a) and (b) show a reach depth of 10 inches maximum.] 

205.1  General.  Operable parts on accessible elements, accessible routes, and in accessible rooms and spaces shall comply with 309. 

 

228.1  General.  Where provided, at least one of each type of depository, vending machine, change machine, and fuel dispenser shall comply with 309. 

Exception:  Drive-up only depositories shall not be required to comply with 309. 

 

228.2 Mail Boxes.  Where mailboxes are provided in an interior location, at least 5 percent, but no fewer than one, of each type shall comply with 309.  In residential facilities, where mailboxes are provided for each residential unit, mail boxes complying with 309 shall be provided for each residential dwelling unit required to provide mobility features complying with 809.2 through 809.4. 

 

309.3  Height.  Operable parts shall be placed within one or more of the reach ranges specified in 308.

 

308.3  Side Reach.

 

308.3.1 Unobstructed.  Where a clear floor or ground space allows a parallel approach to an element and the side reach is unobstructed, the high side reach shall be 48 inches (1220 mm) maximum and the low side reach shall be 15 inches (380 mm) minimum above the finish floor or ground.

Exceptions: . . . 

2:  Operable parts of fuel dispensers shall be permitted to be 54 inches (1370 mm) maximum measured from the surface of the vehicular way where fuel dispensers are installed on existing curbs. 

 

308.3.2  Obstructed High Reach.  Where a clear floor or ground space allows a parallel approach to an element and the high side reach is over an obstruction, the height of the obstruction shall be 34 inches (865 mm) maximum and the depth of the obstruction shall be 24 inches (610 mm) maximum.  The high side reach shall be 48 inches (1220 mm) maximum for a reach depth of 10 inches (255 mm) maximum. . . .

Model Codes & Standards

ICC/ANSI A117.1-1998:  Sections 308.3.1 and 308.3.2 have equivalent requirements for a side reach.

 

The current guidelines and the final revised guidelines require operable parts on accessible elements, along accessible routes, and in accessible rooms and spaces to be placed within a forward or side reach.  The final revised guidelines also require at least one of each type of depositories, vending machines, change machines, and gas pumps; and at least 5 percent of mailboxes provided in an interior location to meet the technical requirements for a forward or side reach. 

 

The current guidelines specify a maximum 54 inch high side reach and a minimum 9 inch low side reach for a reach depth of 10 inches maximum.  The final revised guidelines specify a maximum 48 inch high side reach and a minimum 15 inch low side reach for an unobstructed reach, and a maximum 48 inch high side reach for a reach depth of 10 inches maximum over an obstruction 34 inches maximum in height. 

 

Changing the side reach will affect a variety of building elements such as light switches, electrical outlets, thermostats, fire-alarm pull stations, card readers, and keypads.  Installing the elements at the proper height when a facility is newly constructed or when an element or space is altered typically will involve little or no cost. 

 

The Access Board held public meetings in October 2000 to gather additional information on the impacts of changing the side reach on automated teller machines, gas pumps, and vending machines.[139]  Information provided at the public meeting disclosed that the revision will have minimal impacts:

 

 

 

 

6.20     Handrails Along Walkways[140]

 

Table 6.20 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the technical requirement for handrails along walkways that are not ramps. 

 

Table 6.20 – Handrails Along Walking Surfaces (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

No requirement.

403.6 Handrails.  Where handrails are provided along walking surfaces with running slopes not steeper than 1:20 they shall comply with 505.

 

[Note:  The following requirements in 505 are applicable to handrails along walking surfaces:  505.4 Height; 505.5 Clearance; 505.6 Gripping Surface; 505.7 Cross Section; 505.8 Surfaces; and 505.9 Fittings.  An exception to 505.6 permits the handrail gripping surfaces to be obstructed along their entire length where they are integral to crash rails or bumper guards.] 

Model Codes & Standards

No requirement for handrails along walking surfaces.

 

The current guidelines do not contain any technical requirement for handrails provided along walkways that are not ramps.  The final revised guidelines require handrails along walkways that are not ramps to comply with certain technical requirements..

 

The revision is expected to have minimal impacts since handrails provided along walkways that are not ramps are typically installed in accordance with the model codes, which are generally consistent with the final revised guidelines.  Certain health care facilities provide handrails in corridors for use by ambulatory patients or residents.  Health-care facilities may also provide bumper guards along walls to protect the walls from damage by carts, beds, and other moving equipment.  Products that are designed to serve as bumper guards only are not required to comply with the technical requirements for handrails.  There are products designed to serve as combination bumper guards and handrails that meet the technical requirements for handrails.  Where combination bumper guards and handrails are provided, the final revised guidelines contain an exception that permits the bottom of the gripping surface to be obstructed along the entire length.

 

6.21     Thresholds at Doorways

 

Table 6.21 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the technical requirement for thresholds at doorways. 

 

Table 6.21 – Thresholds at Doors (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.13.8  Thresholds at Doorways.  Thresholds at doorways shall no