Regulatory Assessment
Accessibility Guidelines for Outdoor Developed Areas       PDF version

April 2007

This assessment has been developed and reviewed in accordance with the Access Board’s information quality guidelines (www.access-board.gov/about/policies/infoquality.htm).

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 BACKGROUND
CHAPTER 2 CAMPING AND PICNIC AREAS
CHAPTER 3 TRAILS
CHAPTER 4 OTHER OUTDOOR DEVELOPED AREAS
NOTES

APPENDICES:
APPENDIX A: CAMPING AND PICNIC AREA PROJECTS DATA REQUEST
APPENDIX B: CAMPING AND PICNIC AREA PROJECTS DATA SUMMARY
APPENDIX C: TRAIL PROJECTS DATA REQUEST
APPENDIX D: TRAIL PROJECTS DATA SUMMARY


CHAPTER 1: BACKGROUND

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Federal Agencies Affected by Guidelines
1.3 Need for Guidelines for Outdoor Developed Areas
1.4 Guidelines History
1.5 Baselines
1.6 Costs
1.7 Benefits

1.1 Introduction

The Access Board prepared this regulatory assessment pursuant to Executive Order 12866 for a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to issue accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas. The guidelines apply to the construction or alteration of camping and picnic areas, trails, and other outdoor developed areas by Federal agencies. The Architectural Barriers Act requires these facilities to be accessible to individuals with disabilities.[1]

The Access Board is required by the Rehabilitation Act to establish minimum accessibility guidelines for facilities covered by the Architectural Barriers Act.[2] After the Access Board publishes the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas, the General Services Administration and Department of Defense will adopt the guidelines as the accessibility standards that Federal agencies are required to use when constructing or altering outdoor developed areas covered by the Architectural Barriers Act.[3]

1.2 Federal Agencies Affected by Guidelines

The accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas affect the Federal agencies listed below that manage public lands which have among their uses camping and picnicking, hiking, and other outdoor recreational activities.[4] Information on camping and picnic areas, trails, and other outdoor developed areas constructed or altered by the Federal land management agencies is presented in subsequent chapters.

Department of Agriculture

The Forest Service manages 155 National Forests and 22 National Grasslands on 192 acres in 42 states, territories, and commonwealths. The National Forests and Grasslands receive 205 million visits annually.

Department of the Interior

The National Park Service manages 58 National Parks and 332 other recreational and cultural sites on 85 million acres in 53 states and territories. The National Parks and the other National Park Service recreational and cultural sites receive 271 million visits annually.

The Fish and Wildlife Service manages 545 National Wildlife Refuges on 94 million acres in 52 states and territories. The National Wildlife Refuges receive 73 million visits annually.

The Bureau of Land Management manages 3,496 recreational sites on 262 million acres in 12 western states. The Bureau of Land Management recreational sites receive 56 million visits annually.

The Bureau of Reclamation manages 1,070 recreational sites on 9 million acres in 17 western states. The Bureau of Reclamation recreational sites receive 90 million visits annually.

Department of Defense

The Army Corps of Engineers manages 4,000 recreational sites at 456 projects (mostly lakes) on 12 million acres in 43 states. The Army Corps of Engineers recreational sites receive 375 million visits annually.

1.3 Need for Guidelines for Outdoor Developed Areas

The Access Board has issued accessibility guidelines for many of the facilities covered by the Architectural Barriers Act. These guidelines are known as the Architectural Barriers Act Accessibility Guidelines (ABAAG).[5] ABAAG contains provisions that apply to some facilities constructed or altered in outdoor developed areas by the Federal land management agencies such as parking areas, visitor centers, restrooms and bathing facilities, fishing piers and platforms, and boating docks and marinas. However, ABAAG does not address other spaces and elements constructed or altered in outdoor developed areas by the Federal land management agencies such as recreational vehicle and tent camping spaces, picnic tables, fire rings, and pedestal grills.

The accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas contain provisions for the construction or alteration of spaces and elements in outdoor developed areas that are not addressed in ABAAG. The guidelines also establish new provisions for outdoor recreation access routes, trails, and beach access routes. Finally, the guidelines provide exceptions for conditions that exist in the outdoor environment.

The accessibility guidelines for outdoor develop areas will enable the Federal land management agencies to comply with the Architectural Barriers Act when constructing or altering spaces and elements in outdoor developed areas that are not addressed in ABAAG.

1.4 Guidelines History

The accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas are consensus guidelines that were developed through regulatory negotiation.[6] The Federal land management agencies participated on the regulatory negotiation committee that developed the guidelines along with other organizations whose interests are affected by the guidelines.[7] The regulatory negotiation committee worked on the guidelines for two years from June 1997 to September 1999.[8]

The accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas initially were intended to also apply to state and local governments and private entities under the Americans with Disabilities Act.[9] However, the Access Board was unable to find sufficient information to prepare a regulatory assessment of the impacts of the guidelines on State and local governments and private entities that construct or alter camping and picnic areas, trails, and other outdoor developed areas. The Access Board subsequently decided to limit the application of the guidelines to the Federal land management agencies under the Architectural Barriers Act.[10]

1.5 Baselines

Regulatory actions are compared to a baseline to estimate their costs and benefits. The baseline is a reasonable assessment of what would happen in the absence of the regulatory action, the status quo. The accessibility policies and practices of the Federal land management agencies have evolved over 30 years. The Federal land management agencies’ accessibility policies and practices before and after the regulatory negotiation committee recommended the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas are discussed below.

Federal Land Management Agency Accessibility Policies and Practices Before the Regulatory Negotiation Committee

Since 1978, the Federal land management agencies had a separate obligation under section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act to ensure that their newly constructed or altered facilities are accessible to individuals with disabilities.[11] The Federal land management agencies initially used the American National Standard Institutes’ (ANSI) accessibility standard for buildings and then the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) as the accessibility standard for their facilities.[12] Although the ANSI standard and UFAS did not contain specific provisions for camping and picnic areas, trails, and other outdoor developed areas, the Federal land management agencies applied the technical provisions in the ANSI standard and UFAS for accessible routes, clear floor and maneuvering space, ground surfaces, and reach ranges to the extent possible when constructing or altering these facilities.[13]

In 1985, the Access Board convened a Federal Working Group on Access to Recreation Facilities to review existing practices for designing accessible outdoor recreation facilities. All the Federal land management agencies participated in the working group, and recommended provisions for designing accessible camping and picnic areas and trails. The National Park Service published these provisions in 1989 to use as a supplement to UFAS.[14]

In 1992, the National Park Service entered into a cooperative agreement with the Indiana University, Department of Park and Recreation Administration, to establish a National Center on Accessibility for developing best practice materials and training programs on accessibility for outdoor recreation facilities. The National Center on Accessibility has trained over 1,850 National Park Service personnel from 240 parks on best practices for designing accessible outdoor recreation facilities, including camping and picnic areas and trails. The National Center on Accessibility has also provided training programs on designing accessible outdoor recreation facilities for the other Federal land management agencies.

In 1993, “Universal Access to Outdoor Recreation: A Design Guide” was published. The design guide was developed through a public/private partnership between Project Play and Learning in Adaptable Environments, Inc. (PLAE) and the Forest Service.[15] The design guide included provisions for accessible camping and picnic areas and trails and was used by the Forest Service.

The Federal land management agencies also assigned accessibility managers and accessibility coordinators at the national, regional, and local levels to provide direction and support for implementing the agencies’ accessibility policies and practices.

Thus, prior to the regulatory negotiation committee, the Federal land management agencies were for the most part at the forefront: demonstrating best practices, publishing design guides, providing training, and assigning accessibility managers and accessibility coordinators to ensure that the construction and alterations of camping and picnic areas and trails were accessible to individuals with disabilities.

Federal Land Management Agency Accessibility Policies and Practices After the Regulatory Negotiation Committee

As discussed earlier in this chapter, the Federal land management agencies, as well as the National Center on Accessibility, were members of the regulatory negotiation committee that recommended the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas. The regulatory negotiation committee built on the earlier work of the Federal land management agencies. The Federal land management agencies in turn used the work of the regulatory negotiation committee to refine their accessibility policies and practices.

The Forest Service prepared the “Forest Service Outdoor Recreation Accessibility Guidelines” (FSORAG) and “Forest Service Trails Accessibility Guidelines” (FSTAG) based on the work of the regulatory negotiation committee.[16] The Forest Service amended the Forest Service Manual to require all construction and alteration projects in the National Forest System to use FSORAG and FSTAG.[17] FSORAG goes beyond the guidelines recommended by the regulatory negotiation committee for certain elements and spaces.

The National Center on Accessibility prepared best practice bulletins for designing accessible camping and picnic areas and accessible trails based on the work of the regulatory negotiation committee.[18] The National Park Service and other Federal land management agencies in the Department of Interior currently use these best practice bulletins for their construction and alteration projects.

The Army Corps of Engineers prepared “Recreation Facility and Customer Service Standards” for its construction and alteration projects.[19] The Army Corps of Engineers’ standards are based on general considerations of public convenience, resource protection, and sustainability. The Army Corps of Engineers’ standards require all campsite living areas to have firm and stable ground surfaces at cooking and eating areas and at tent pads. The Army Corps of Engineers’ standards also include provisions for accessibility that require all new picnic tables, fire rings and pedestal grills to be accessible. The Army Corps of Engineers construction and alteration projects also use best practices for accessible design. [20]

Baselines for Regulatory Assessment

The Access Board used two baselines for this regulatory assessment. The first baseline assesses the costs associated with the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas compared to the Federal land management agencies current accessibility policies and practices as described below:

The second baseline assesses the costs associated with the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas if accessibility were not required by the Access Board or otherwise. That is, the second baseline attempts to evaluate how the Federal land management’s agencies would construct or alter the elements and spaces covered by the guidelines in the absence of any accessibility requirements.

1.6 Costs

Elements and Spaces Covered by Guidelines

The accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas cover the elements and spaces listed in Table 1.1.

Table 1.1 - Elements and Spaces Covered by Guidelines

Outdoor Developed Areas

Elements and Spaces Covered by Guidelines

Camping and Picnic Areas

Parking Areas in Camping Spaces
Tent Pads and Platforms
Picnic Tables
Fire Rings
Pedestal Grills
Trash Containers
Water Hydrants
Utility Hook-Ups
Benches
Outdoor Recreation Access Routes

Trails

Trails Designated for Pedestrian Use That Connect to a Designated Trailhead or an Accessible Trail

Other Outdoor Developed Areas

Beach Access Routes
Outdoor Rinsing Showers
Designated Viewing Areas
Telescopes and Periscopes
Warming Huts
Wood Stoves and Fireplaces
Storage Facilities for Mobility Devices
Pit Toilets

 

Annual Expenditures on Construction or Alteration of Elements and Spaces Covered by Guidelines

Establishing the Federal land management agencies annual expenditures on the construction or alteration of the elements and spaces covered by the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas required a project-by-project review. The Access Board requested data from the Federal land management agencies on camping and picnic projects and trails projects funded in FY 2004 that included elements and spaces covered by the guidelines.[24]

The Forest Service prepared a regulatory assessment for FSORAG and FSTAG.[25] The Forest Service provided data from its regulatory assessment for FSORAG and FSTAG. The National Park Service provided data from its Project Management Information System (PMIS). The other Federal land management agencies in the Department of the Interior, and the Army Corps of Engineers conducted data calls to their regional and field offices to provide project data. The data is summarized in Table 1.2. Some of the projects included the construction or alteration of general parking areas, restrooms, and other facilities covered by existing accessibility standards, or the construction or alteration of roads and other infrastructure that are not subject to accessibility standards. Thus, the total project costs overstate the expenditures on elements and spaces covered by the guidelines.

Table 1.2 – FY 2004 Projects That Included Construction or
Alteration of Elements and Spaces Covered by Guidelines

 

Agency

Camping & Picnic Areas

Trails

Number of Projects

Total Project Costs

Number of Projects

Total Project Costs

Department of Agriculture

 

 

 

 

 

Forest Service

 

Not available

$6.9 million

(FY 2003)

 

Not available

 

Not available

Department of the Interior

 

 

 

 

National Park Service

46

$14.0 million

33

$2.7 million

Fish and Wildlife Service

2

$0.2 million

3

$0.3 million

Bureau of Land Management

6

$1.8 million

1

$25,000

Bureau of Reclamation

8

$1.1 million

3

$1.2 million

Department of Defense

 

 

 

 

Army Corps of Engineers

25

Not available

4

$1 million

Total

87

$24.0 million

44

$5.2 million

 

The number of projects that include the construction or alteration of elements and spaces covered by the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas will vary each fiscal year based on the specific projects funded, and the total costs of the projects will also vary based on the scope of work of the projects.

Review of Projects

The Access Board reviewed 43 camping and picnic area projects and 26 trail projects that included the construction or alteration of elements and spaces covered by the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas for this regulatory assessment, as shown in Table 1.3.[26] The purpose of the review was to assess the level of accessibility of the elements and spaces, and the additional costs associated with accessibility. The results of the review are discussed in the subsequent chapters.

Table 1.3 – Projects Reviewed for Regulatory Assessment

Agency

Camping & Picnic Area Projects

Trail Projects

Department of Agriculture

 

 

Forest Service

12

4

Department of the Interior

 

 

National Park Service

9

11

Fish and Wildlife Service

2

3

Bureau of Land Management

6

1

Bureau of Reclamation

8

3

Department of Defense

 

 

Army Corps of Engineers

6

4

Total

43

26

Costs Associated with Guidelines

The Access Board used the project reviews to develop models for estimating the additional annual costs associated with the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas compared to the baselines discussed earlier in this chapter. The models are discussed in the subsequent chapters.

The additional annual costs associated with the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas compared to the Federal land management agencies current accessibility policies and practices (baseline 1) are shown in Table 1.4 and range from $0.5 million to $1.1 million.

Table 1.4 – Additional Annual Costs Associated with Baseline 1:
Guidelines Compared to Agencies’ Current Accessibility Policies and Practices

 Agency

Camping &
Picnic Areas

 Trails

Other Outdoor Developed Areas

 Total

Department of Agriculture

 

 

 

 

Forest Service

$0

$0

$0

$0

Department of the Interior

 

 

 

 

  National Park Service

$126,588 to $244,951

$180,000 to  $340,000

$0 to  $50,000

$306,588 to  $634,951

Fish and Wildlife Service

$12,873 

$20,000 to  $40,000

$0 to $50,000

$32,873 to  $102,873

Bureau of Land Management

$21,098 to  $33,971

$20,000 

$0 to $50,000

$41,098 to  $103,971

Bureau of Reclamation

$21,098 to  $42,196

$20,000 to  $40,000

$0 to $50,000

$41,098 to  $132,196

Department of Defense

 

 

 

 

Army Corps of Engineers

$36,000 to  $72,000

$20,000 to  $40,000

$0 to  $50,000

$56,000 to  $162,000

Total

$217,657 to  $405,991

$260,000 to  $480,000

$0 to $250,000

$477,657 to  $1,135,991

 

The additional annual costs associated with the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas if accessibility were not required by the Access Board or otherwise (baseline 2) are shown in Table 1.5 and range from $2.0 million to $2.6 million.

Table 1.5 – Additional Annual Costs Associated with Baseline 2:
Guidelines Compared to Accessibility Not Required by Access Board or Otherwise

 
Agency

Camping &
Picnic Areas

 
Trails

Other Outdoor Developed Areas

 
Total

Department of Agriculture

 

 

 

 

Forest Service [27]

$0 to  $320,000

$157,000 to  $166,000

$0 to  $50,000

$157,000 to  $536,000

Department of the Interior

 

 

 

 

  National Park Service

$485,254   

$660,000

$0 to  $50,000

$1,145,254 to  $1,195,254

Fish and Wildlife Service

$21,098

$60,000

$0 to  $50,000

$81,098 to  $131,098

Bureau of Land Management

$63,294 

$20,000 

$0 to  $50,000

$83,294 to  $133,294

Bureau of Reclamation

$84,512 

$60,000 

$0 to  $50,000

144,512 to  $194,512

Department of Defense

 

 

 

 

Army Corps of Engineers

$266,049  

$80,000  

$0 to  $50,000

$346,049 to  $396,049

Total

$920,207 to  $1,240,207

$1,037,000 to $1,046,000

$0 to $300,000

$1,957,207 to $2,586,207

Thus, the guidelines are not an economically significant regulatory action compared to either of the two baselines, and the Access Board has not prepared a full cost-benefit analysis of the guidelines.[28]

1.7 Benefits

Individuals with disabilities, and their families and friends, will benefit from accessible facilities in outdoor developed areas. The U.S. Census Bureau reports that there are 51.2 million Americans with disabilities in the civilian non-institutionalized population in 2002.[29] Among the population age 15 and older, 2.7 million individuals used a wheelchair, and another 9.1 million used a mobility aid such as a cane, crutches, or walker. Many of the benefits to these individuals resulting from accessible facilities in outdoor developed areas are currently being realized under the Federal land management agencies’ current accessibility policies and practices. The Access Board’s accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas will contribute to the benefits, and justify issuing the guidelines.


CHAPTER 2: CAMPING AND PICNIC AREAS

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Camping and Picnic Area Projects Covered by Guidelines
2.3 Picnic Tables, Fire Rings and Pedestal Grills
2.4 Other Camping and Picnic Elements
2.5 Recreational Vehicle and Tent Camping Spaces
2.6 Outdoor Recreation Access Routes
2.7 Ground Surfaces
2.8 Costs

2.1 Introduction

This chapter discusses the provisions in the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas that apply to the construction and alteration of camping and picnic areas. The provisions cover the following elements and spaces: picnic tables, fire rings, pedestal grills, trash containers, water hydrants, utility hook-ups, benches, recreational vehicle and tent camping spaces, and outdoor recreation access routes.

2.2 Camping and Picnic Area Projects Covered By Guidelines

The number of camping and picnic areas managed by the Federal land management agencies is shown in Table 2.1.[30]

Table 2.1 – Camping and Picnic Areas Managed by Federal Agencies

 
Agency

Camping Areas

Picnic Areas

Campgrounds

Camp Sites

Picnic Areas

Picnic Sites

Department of Agriculture

 

 

 

 

Forest Service

4,300

122,000

1,496

Not available

Department of Interior

 

 

 

 

National Park Service

1,024

17,264

738

3,649

Fish and Wildlife Service

Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available

Bureau of Land Management

1,237

17,510

Not available

Not available

Bureau of Reclamation

350

Not available

Not available

Not available

Department of Defense

 

 

 

 

Army Corps of Engineers

Not available

101,000

Not available

Not available

 

The Federal land management agencies spend a small portion of their capital improvement funds on the construction and alteration of elements and spaces covered by the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas. The Forest Service reported in its regulatory assessment for FSORAG and FSTAG that $75 million was spent on facilities improvements in the National Forest System in FY 2003, and that $6.9 million of this amount, or 9 percent of the total, was spent on the elements and spaces covered by FSORAG.

The Access Board requested data from the other Federal land management agencies on camping and picnic area projects funded in FY 2004 that included the construction or alteration of elements and spaces covered by the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas. The data provided by the other Federal land management agencies is presented in Table 2.2.[31] Some of the projects included the construction or alteration of general parking areas, restrooms, and other facilities covered by existing accessibility standards, or the construction or alteration of roads and other infrastructure that are not subject to accessibility standards. Thus, the total project costs overstate the expenditures on elements and spaces covered by the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas.

Table 2.2 � FY 2004 Camping and Picnic Area Projects That Included Construction or Alteration of Elements and Spaces Covered by Guidelines

Agency

Number of Projects

Total Project Costs

Department of the Interior

 

 

National Park Service

46

$14.0 million

Fish and Wildlife Service

2

$0.2 million

Bureau of Land Management

6

$1.8 million

Bureau of Reclamation

8

$1.1 million

Department of Defense

 

 

Army Corps of Engineers

25

Not available

The Access Board reviewed 43 camping and picnic area projects for this regulatory assessment that included the construction or alteration of elements and spaces covered by the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas, as shown in Table 2.3.[32]

Table 2.3 � Camping and Picnic Area Projects Reviewed for Regulatory Assessment

Agency

Projects Reviewed

Total Project Costs

Department of Agriculture

 

 

Forest Service

12

$6.1 million

Department of Interior

 

 

National Park Service

9

$4.5 million

Fish and Wildlife Service

2

$0.2 million

Bureau of Land Management

6

$1.8 million

Bureau of Reclamation

8

$1.1 million

Department of Defense

 

 

Army Corps of Engineers

6

$2.2 million

Totals

43

$15.9 million

The projects were requested to provide data using the form in Appendix A. The responses from the projects are summarized in Appendix B. If a data field is not filled in, the project did not provide the requested data.

The projects ranged in cost from $1,129 to $4,000,000. As noted above, some of the projects included the construction or alteration of general parking areas, restrooms, and other facilities covered by existing accessibility standards, or the construction or alteration of roads and other infrastructure that are not subject to accessibility standards. The costs for elements and spaces covered by the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas are shown in Table 2.4. The table does not include 15 projects that included work not covered by the guidelines but did not disaggregate the costs for elements and spaces covered by the guidelines. More than half the projects spent under $300,000 on elements and spaces covered by the guidelines, and more than a third of the projects spent less than $50,000.

Table 2.4 � Costs for Elements and Spaces Covered by Guidelines

 Agency

Less than
$50,000

$50,000 �
$99,999

$100,000 �
$199,999

$200,000 �
$299,999

Over
$300,000

Department of Agriculture

 

 

 

 

 

Forest Service

3

1

3

4

1

Department of Interior

 

 

 

 

 

National Park Service

3

1

 

 

 

Fish and Wildlife Service

 

 

 

 

 

Bureau of Land Management

3

 

 

 

 

Bureau of Reclamation

4

1

 

 

 

Department of Defense

 

 

 

 

 

Army Corps of Engineers

3

 

1

 

 

Total

16

3

4

4

1

Fourteen (14) projects constructed new camping and picnic areas, and the other 29 projects altered existing camping and picnic areas. Twenty-four (24) projects involved camping areas only; 12 projects involved picnic areas only; and 7 projects involved both camping areas and picnic areas. The number of campsites in the camping areas is shown in Table 2.5. The table does not include a park-wide project that altered several existing camping areas.

Table 2.5 � Number of Campsites in Camping Areas

Agency

10 or Fewer

11 - 25

26-50

More than 50

Department of Agriculture

 

 

 

 

Forest Service

 

2

8

 

Department of Interior

 

 

 

 

National Park Service

2

 

 

3

Fish and Wildlife Service

1

1

 

 

Bureau of Land Management

1

1

2

 

Bureau of Reclamation

3

 

1

 

Department of Defense

 

 

 

 

Army Corps of Engineers

 

2

2

1

Total

7

6

13

4

 

The number of picnic tables in the picnic areas is shown in Table 2.6.

Table 2.6 � Number of Picnic Tables in Picnic Areas

Agency

10 or Fewer

11 - 25

More than 25

Department of Agriculture

 

 

 

Forest Service

4

 

1

Department of Interior

 

 

 

National Park Service

1

2

1

Fish and Wildlife Service

 

 

 

Bureau of Land Management

4

 

 

Bureau of Reclamation

3

1

1

Department of Defense

 

 

 

Army Corps of Engineers

1

 

 

Total

13

3

3

 

2.3 Picnic Tables, Fire Rings and Pedestal Grills

When a new camping area is constructed, the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas require a certain number of accessible camping spaces to be provided. For camping areas with 100 or fewer camping spaces, the guidelines require at least 2 accessible spaces where 2 to 25 spaces are provided; at least 3 accessible spaces where 26 to 50 spaces are provided; at least 4 accessible spaces where 51 to 75 spaces are provided; and at least 5 accessible spaces where 76 to 100 spaces are provided.[33] If the accessible camping spaces are equipped with picnic tables, fire rings or pedestal grills, the guidelines require these elements to be accessible.

When a new picnic area is constructed, the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas require at least 50 percent, but not fewer than two, of the picnic tables, fire rings and pedestal grills provided in the picnic area to be accessible where more than one of each element is provided.[34]

When an existing camping area or picnic area is altered, the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas require the altered elements and spaces to meet the requirements for new construction.[35] For example, if an existing picnic area with 10 picnic tables is altered and 4 old picnic tables are replaced with 4 new picnic tables, the guidelines require the 4 new picnic tables to be accessible. If the same picnic area is altered the next year and the other 6 old picnic tables are replaced with 6 new picnic tables, the guidelines require only one of the new picnic tables to be accessible to meet the new construction requirement for at least 50 percent of the picnic tables in the picnic area to be accessible.

Picnic Tables

The accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas require accessible picnic tables to have at least one wheelchair space with knee and toe clearance under the table.[36] The wheelchair space can be located at the end of the picnic table without any loss of seating space at the sides of the table. Accessible picnic tables are commercially available. A review of the Federal Supply Schedule in July 2006 shows that 33 manufacturers represent that their picnic tables are accessible.[37]

Forty-one (41) of the projects reviewed for this regulatory assessment provided new picnic tables. The length of the picnic tables ranged from 6 feet to 12 feet. The majority of the picnic tables provided were 8 feet long. Twenty-three (23) projects provided picnic tables from manufacturers on the Federal Supply Schedule.[38] Thirteen (13) projects provided picnic tables from a manufacturer on the Federal Supply Schedule that makes an extra heavy duty picnic table in accessible and non-accessible designs. The picnic table is available in a variety of materials, including wood, aluminum, several types of vinyl clad steel, and recycled plastic. Depending on the material, the cost for an 8 foot long picnic table made by the manufacturer ranges from $212 to $668 for the non-accessible design, and from $262 to $718 for the accessible design (or $50 additional cost for the accessible design compared to the non-accessible design made from the same materials) on the Federal Supply Schedule in July 2006.[39]

The 10 other projects that provided picnic tables from manufacturers on the Federal Supply Schedule, got the picnic tables from manufacturers who either make 8 foot picnic tables only in accessible designs, or who make 8 foot picnic tables in accessible and non-accessible designs and sell both designs of the same type picnic table for the same price. The picnic table costs reported by the projects are shown in Table 2.7.[40] The additional costs for accessible picnic tables in the same project cannot be provided for the Fish and Wildlife Service projects and Army Corps of Engineers projects because the same projects did not report costs for accessible and non-accessible picnic tables. Five projects provided custom made picnic tables, and four of the custom made picnic tables ranged in price from $1000 to $1400. Four projects reported that the picnic table costs were the contractor’s price, and included installation. Two projects reported that the picnic table costs included site work costs, and were not able to separate the site work costs and the picnic table costs. With a few exceptions, the additional costs reported by the projects for accessible picnic tables are within the range of additional costs shown on the Federal Supply Schedule and in the manufacturer’s catalogues.

Table 2.7 � Picnic Table Costs Reported by Projects

 
Agency

# Projects Provided Tables

# Projects Reported Costs
Lowest Cost � Highest Cost

Additional Cost
 for Accessible
Tables in
Same Project

Accessible
Tables

Non-Accessible
Tables

Department of Agriculture

 

 

 

 

Forest Service

12 Projects

12 Projects
$208 - $1654

8 Projects
$149 - $1400

 
$0 - $200

Department of Interior

 

 

 

 

National Park Service

8 Projects

5 Projects
$200 - $1000

6 Projects
$145 - $1000

 
$0 - $139

Fish and Wildlife Service

2 Projects

1 Project
$2050

1 Project
$524

 
Not Available

Bureau of Land Management

6 Projects

6 Projects
$450 - $1000

1 Project
$475

 
$175

Bureau of Reclamation

8 Projects

8 Projects
$178 - $1100

1 Project
$650

 
$50

Department of Defense

 

 

 

 

Army Corps of Engineers

5 Projects

4 Projects
$100 - $320

1 Project
$354

 
Not Available

 

Thirty-two (32) projects met or exceeded the number of accessible picnic tables required by the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas as shown in Table 2.8. Two National Park Service projects did not provide sufficient information to determine whether the projects met or exceeded the number of accessible picnic tables required by the guidelines. One Army Corps of Engineers project provided the number of picnic tables with wheelchair spaces required by the guidelines, but the wheelchair spaces did not have sufficient knee clearance required by the guidelines.

Table 2.8 � Projects That Met or Exceeded Number of Accessible Picnic Tables Required by Guidelines

 
Agency

#  Projects
Provided Tables

# Projects
Met Guidelines

# Projects
Exceeded Guidelines

Department of Agriculture

 

 

 

Forest Service

12

 

12

Department of Interior

 

 

 

National Park Service

8

1

3

Fish and Wildlife Service

2

 

1

Bureau of Land Management

6

1

4

Bureau of Reclamation

8

3

4

Department of Defense

 

 

 

Army Corps of Engineers

5

2

1

Total

41

7

25

 

The number of additional accessible picnic tables needed by the other six projects that did not provide the number of accessible picnic tables required by the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas is shown in Table 2.9. [41]

Table 2.9 � Additional Accessible Picnic Tables Needed by Projects That Did Not Provide Number of Accessible Picnic Tables Required by Guidelines

 Agency Project

# Accessible Tables Provided by Project

# Additional Accessible TablesNeeded by Project

Department of Interior

 

 

National Park Service Project

3

4

National Park Service Project

2

9

Fish and Wildlife Service Project

0

2

Bureau of Land Management Project

2

2

Bureau of Reclamation Project

3

10

Department of Defense

 

 

Army Corps of Engineers Project

0

2


Fire Rings

Fire rings are commercially available in various sizes and features. The outside diameter of fire rings ranges from 26 inches to 56 inches, with 30 inches the most common size. The height of fire rings ranges from 7 inches to 24 inches. Higher fire rings are partially filled with aggregate to provide an elevated fire surface. Fire rings have cooking grates that provide about 300 square inches of cooking surface. There are single level and adjustable multi-level cooking grates. Fire rings have one or two walls. Dual walls provide a heat barrier that reduces the outer wall temperature and are safer to operate.

The accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas require accessible fire rings to have a fire surface at least 9 inches above the ground, and a cooking surface between 15 inches and 34 inches above the ground.[42]

Twenty-nine (29) projects reviewed for this regulatory assessment provided new fire rings. Nineteen (19) projects provided fire rings from manufacturers on the Federal Supply Schedule.[43] Twelve (12) projects provided fire rings from a manufacturer on the Federal Supply Schedule that makes fire rings in accessible and non-accessible designs. The cost for a 30 inch diameter fire ring made by the manufacturer is $86 for a non-accessible design with a 9 inch height and $140 for an accessible design with an18 inch height (or $54 additional cost for the accessible design compared to the non-accessible design) on the Federal Supply Schedule in July 2006.[44] The additional cost for accessible fire rings made by the other manufacturers ranged from $66 to $178 on the Federal Supply Schedule and in the manufacturer’s catalogues in July 2006.[45]

The fire ring costs reported by the projects are shown in Table 2.10.[46] The additional costs for accessible fire rings in the same project cannot be provided for the Army Corps of Engineers projects because the same projects did not report costs for accessible and non-accessible fire rings. Three projects reported that the fire ring costs were the contractor’s price, and included installation. One project reported that the fire ring costs included site work costs, and were not able to separate the site work costs and the fire ring costs. With a few exceptions, the additional costs reported by the projects for accessible fire rings are within the range of additional costs shown on the Federal Supply Schedule and in the manufacturer’s catalogues.

Table 2.10 � Fire Ring Costs Reported by Projects

 
 
Agency

# Projects
Provided
Fire
Rings

# Projects Reported Costs
Lowest Cost � Highest Cost

Additional Cost
 for Accessible
Fire Rings in
Same Project

Accessible
Fire Rings

Non-Accessible
Fire Rings

Department of Agriculture

 

 

 

 

Forest Service

10 Projects

10 Projects
$127 - $600

7 Projects
$106 - $450

 
$0 - $120

Department of Interior

 

 

 

 

National Park Service

5 Projects

3 Projects
$125 - $232

3 Projects
$60 - $129

 
$50 - $103

Fish and Wildlife Service

2 Projects

2 Projects
$119 - $675

0 Projects
 

 
 

Bureau of Land Management

4 Projects

4 Projects
$120 - $450

1 Projects
$85 - $400

 
$50

Bureau of Reclamation

4 Projects

4 Projects
$155 - $300

1 Project
$300

 
$0

Department of Defense

 

 

 

 

Army Corps of Engineers

4 Projects

2 Projects
$145 - $225

2 Projects
$50 - $80

 
Not Available

 

Twenty-four (24) projects met or exceeded the number of accessible fire rings required by the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas as shown in Table 2.11. Two National Park Service projects did not provide sufficient information to determine whether the projects met or exceeded the number of accessible fire rings required by the guidelines.

Table 2.11 � Projects That Met or Exceeded Number of Accessible Fire Rings Required by Guidelines

 
Agency

#  Projects
Provided Fire Rings

# Projects
Met Guidelines

# Projects
Exceeded Guidelines

Department of Agriculture

 

 

 

Forest Service

10

 

10

Department of Interior

 

 

 

National Park Service

5

2

 

Fish and Wildlife Service

2

 

2

Bureau of Land Management

4

 

4

Bureau of Reclamation

4

3

1

Department of Defense

 

 

 

Army Corps of Engineers

4

2

 

Total

29

7

17

 

The number of additional accessible fire rings needed by the other three projects that did not provide the number of accessible fire rings required by the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas is shown in Table 2.12.[47]

Table 2.12 � Additional Accessible Fire Rings Needed by Projects That Did Not Provide Number of Accessible Fire Rings Required by Guidelines

 
Agency Project

# Accessible Fire Rings Provided by Project

# Additional Accessible Fire Rings Needed by Project

Department of Interior

 

 

National Park Service Project

2

6

Department of Defense

 

 

Army Corps of Engineers Project

0

2

Army Corps of Engineers Project

0

3

Pedestal Grills

The accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas require the cooking surfaces on pedestal grills to be between 15 inches and 34 inches above the ground.[48] Most pedestal grills have adjustable cooking grates and can be installed so that the highest grate setting is 34 inches above the ground. There is no additional cost incurred by installing pedestal grills so that the cooking surface is at an accessible height.

Nineteen (19) projects reviewed for this regulatory assessment provided new pedestal grills. The accessible pedestal grills ranged in cost from $122 to $575. Most of the projects reported no additional costs for the accessible pedestal grills.[49]

Fifteen (15) projects met or exceeded the number of accessible pedestal grills required by the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas as shown in Table 2.13. The four projects that did not provide the number of accessible pedestal grills required by the guidelines needed to provide two additional accessible pedestal grills to meet the guidelines.

Table 2.13 � Projects That Met or Exceeded Number of Accessible Pedestal Grills Required by Guidelines

 
Agency

#  Projects
Provided Grills

# Projects
Met Guidelines

# Projects
Exceeded Guidelines

Department of Agriculture

 

 

 

Forest Service

5

 

5

Department of Interior

 

 

 

National Park Service

2

1

1

Fish and Wildlife Service

0

 

 

Bureau of Land Management

3

1

1

Bureau of Reclamation

7

3

2

Department of Defense

 

 

 

Army Corps of Engineers

2

1

 

Total

19

6

9

 

 
2.4 Other Camping and Picnic Elements

The projects also provided new trash containers, water hydrants, utility hook-ups, and benches.

Trash Containers

Eleven (11) projects reviewed for this regulatory assessment provided new trash containers. The accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas require operable parts on trash containers to be within reach ranges and to meet certain operation requirements.[50] The trash containers provided by 10 projects met the guidelines. One project did not provide sufficient information to determine whether the trash containers met the guidelines. The trash containers ranged in cost from $10 to $3000. Most of the projects reported no additional costs for accessible trash containers.[51]

Water Hydrants

Nine (9) projects reviewed for this regulatory assessment provided new water hydrants. The accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas require water hydrant spouts serving accessible camping spaces and picnic tables to be between 28 inches and 36 inches above the ground, and the controls to meet certain operation requirements.[52] The water hydrant spouts provided by four projects met the guidelines. Three projects did not provide sufficient information to determine whether the water hydrant spouts met the guidelines. Most of the projects reported no additional costs for accessible water hydrant spouts.[53]

Utility Hook-Ups

Six (6) projects reviewed for this regulatory assessment provided new electric, water, and sewage hook-ups for recreational vehicle camping spaces. The accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas require operable parts on electric and water hook-ups serving accessible camping spaces to be within reach ranges and to meet certain operation requirements.[54] The electric and water hook-ups provided by four projects met the guidelines. The projects reported no additional costs for accessible electric and water hook-ups.

Benches

Five (5) projects reviewed for this regulatory assessment provided new benches. The accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas require at least 50 percent of benches provided in an area to meet certain requirements for seat height and back support; and at least 50 percent of the benches meeting these requirements are also required to have at least one arm rest.[55] The benches provided by four projects met or exceeded the guidelines. The projects reported no additional costs for accessible benches.

2.5 Recreational Vehicle and Tent Camping Spaces

When a new camping area is constructed, the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas require a certain number of accessible camping spaces to be provided in each camping area.[56] For camping areas with 100 or fewer camping spaces, the guidelines require at least 2 accessible spaces where 2 to 25 spaces are provided; at least 3 accessible spaces where 26 to 50 spaces are provided; at least 4 accessible spaces where 51 to 75 spaces are provided; and at least 5 accessible spaces where 76 to 100 spaces are provided.[57] When an existing camping area is altered, the guidelines require the altered camping spaces to meet the requirements for new construction.[58] For example, if an existing camping area has 30 camping spaces and 10 of the camping spaces are altered, the guidelines require 3 of the altered camping spaces to be accessible.[59]

Recreational Vehicle Parking Areas

Recreational vehicle parking areas in camping spaces are typically at least 12 feet to 14 feet wide.[60] The accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas require recreational vehicle parking areas that are constructed or altered in accessible camping spaces be at least 20 feet wide to accommodate recreational vehicles equipped with a lift or ramp.[61] Where camping spaces are designed for both recreational vehicle and tent camping, the guidelines permit the parking areas in 50 percent of the accessible camping spaces to be at least 16 feet wide.[62] Where general parking areas are constructed or altered for recreational vehicles, the guidelines require at least one accessible parking space that is at least 12 feet wide and that has an adjacent access aisle at least 8 feet wide.[63]

Twenty-two (22) projects reviewed for this regulatory assessment constructed or altered recreational vehicle parking areas in camping spaces. In 14 projects, the camping spaces were designed for both recreational vehicle and tent camping. Fourteen (14) projects met or exceeded the number of accessible recreational vehicle parking areas required by the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas as shown in Table 2.14. Three Bureau of Reclamation projects did not provide sufficient information to determine whether the projects met or exceeded the guidelines.

Table 2.14 � Projects That Met or Exceeded Number of Accessible Recreational Vehicle Parking Areas Required by Guidelines

  

Agency

#  Projects Constructed or Altered RV
Parking Areas

 
# Projects
Met Guidelines

# Projects
Exceeded Guidelines

Department of Agriculture

 

 

 

Forest Service

8

2

5

Department of Interior

 

 

 

National Park Service

1

 

 

Fish and Wildlife Service

1

 

1

Bureau of Land Management

3

 

3

Bureau of Reclamation

4

 

 

Department of Defense

 

 

 

Army Corps of Engineers

5

3

 

Total

22

5

9

 

The number of additional accessible recreational vehicle parking areas needed by the other five projects that did not provide the number of accessible recreational vehicle camping spaces required by the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas is shown in Table 2.15.[64]

Table 2.15 � Additional Accessible Recreational Vehicle Parking Areas Needed by Projects That Did Not Provide Number of Accessible Recreational Vehicle Parking Areas Required by Guidelines

 
Agency Project

# Accessible RV Parking Areas Provided by Project

Additional Accessible RV Parking Areas Needed by Project

Department of Agriculture

 

 

Forest Service Project

2

1

Department of Interior

 

 

National Park Service Project

6

6

Bureau of Reclamation Project

1

1

Department of Defense

 

 

Army Corps of Engineers Project

0

2

Army Corps of Engineers Project

0

3

 

Tent Pads and Tent Platforms

Tent pads and tent platforms in camping spaces are typically at least 12 feet by 12 feet, or 144 square feet. The accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas require that tent pads or tent platforms constructed or altered in accessible camping spaces have at least 4 feet wide clear space around the tent pads or tent platforms.[65] A tent pad or tent platform that is 12 feet by 12 feet, plus 4 feet wide clear space around the tent pad or tent platform, occupies 400 square feet of ground space.

Seventeen (17) projects reviewed for this regulatory assessment constructed or altered tent pads or tent platforms in camping spaces. Fourteen (14) projects met or exceeded the number of accessible tent pads or tent platforms required by the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas as shown in Table 2.16. The three projects that did not provide the number of accessible tent pads or tent platforms required by the guidelines needed to provide one additional accessible tent pad or tent platform to meet the guidelines.


Table 2.16 � Projects That Met or Exceeded Number of Accessible Tent Pads or Tent Platforms Required by Guidelines

 

 Agency

#  Projects Constructed or Altered Tent Pads or Tent Platforms

# Projects
Met
Guidelines

# Projects
Exceeded Guidelines

Department of Agriculture

 

 

 

Forest Service

9

1

7

Department of Interior

 

 

 

National Park Service

3

 

2

Fish and Wildlife Service

1

 

1

Bureau of Land Management

2

 

2

Bureau of Reclamation

1

 

 

Department of Defense

 

 

 

Army Corps of Engineers

1

 

1

Total

17

1

13

 

 2.6 Outdoor Recreation Access Routes

When a new camping area is constructed, the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas require an outdoor recreation access route to connect the accessible elements and spaces within the area.[66] Where a new picnic area is constructed, the guidelines require an outdoor recreation access route to connect at least 40 percent, but no fewer than two, of the accessible picnic tables, fire rings, pedestal grills, or benches within the area.[67] When an existing outdoor recreation access route is altered, it is required to meet the guidelines.[68]

Twenty-six (26) projects reviewed for this regulatory assessment constructed new camping and picnic areas, or altered existing outdoor recreation access routes. All 26 projects provided outdoor recreation access routes that met the requirements of the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas as shown in Table 2.17.

Table 2.17 � Projects That Met Guidelines for Outdoor Recreation Access Routes

 
Agency

#  Projects Worked on Access Routes

# Projects
Met Guidelines

Department of Agriculture

 

 

Forest Service

10

10

Department of Interior

 

 

National Park Service

6

6

Fish and Wildlife Service

1

1

Bureau of Land Management

4

4

Bureau of Reclamation

4

4

Department of Defense

 

 

Army Corps of Engineers

1

1

Total

26

26

 

2.7 Ground Surfaces

As further discussed below, the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas require ground surfaces at accessible camping and picnic elements, accessible tent pads and tent platforms, and outdoor recreation access routes to be firm and stable.

Accessible Camping and Picnic Elements

When a new camping or picnic area is constructed, or the ground surfaces at an existing camping or picnic areas are altered, the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas require clear spaces with firm and stable ground surfaces to be provided at accessible camping and picnic elements.[69]

Thirty-five (35) projects reviewed for this regulatory assessment constructed new camping and picnic areas, or altered the ground surfaces at existing camping and picnic areas. All the projects provided pads with firm and stable surfaces in the accessible camping spaces and picnic sites that included space for the picnic tables, fire rings and pedestal grills as shown in Table 2.18.[70] Ten (10) projects reported data on pad sizes and costs. The pad sizes ranged from 196 square feet to 1200 square feet. The larger pads combined the cooking and eating areas, recreational vehicle parking areas, and tent pads. Some projects included the costs for clearing and grading the site, adding fill, and providing timber or block borders around the perimeter of the pads in the figures.

Table 2.18 � Projects That Provided Pads with Firm and Stable Ground Surfaces at Accessible Camping and Picnic Elements

 

  
Agency

#  Projects
Provided
Firm & Stable
Pads

# Projects
Reported
Data on
Pad Size & Cost

 
Pad
Sizes
(Sq. Ft.)

 
 
Pad
Costs

Department of Agriculture

 

 

 

 

Forest Service

12

4

345 - 1033

$960 - $5020

Department of Interior

 

 

 

 

National Park Service

5

0

 

 

Fish and Wildlife Service

1

0

 

 

Bureau of Land Management

5

2

196 � 225

$2256 - $3375

Bureau of Reclamation

6

1

200

$2300

Department of Defense

 

 

 

 

Army Corps of Engineers

6

3

400 -1200

$1000 - $8125

Total

35

10

 

 

 

Accessible Tent Pads and Tent Platforms

The accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas require accessible tent pads and tent platforms, and the 4 feet wide minimum clear space around the accessible tent pads or tent platforms, to have firm and stable ground surfaces.[71]

Seventeen (17) projects reviewed for this regulatory assessment constructed or altered tent pads or tent platforms. All the projects provided accessible tent pads or tent platforms with firm and stable ground surfaces as shown in Table 2.19.[72] Two projects reported data on tent pad or tent platform sizes and costs. Some projects provided larger pads that combined the cooking and eating areas and the tent pads, and did not report separate data on tent pad sizes and costs.

Table 2.19 � Projects That Provided Accessible Tent Pads or Tent Platforms with Firm and Stable Ground Surfaces

 

  
 
Agency

#  Projects
Provided
Firm & Stable
 Tent Pads or
Tent Platforms

# Projects
Reported Data on Tent Pad or Tent Platform
Size & Cost

Tent Pad or Tent Platform
Sizes
(Sq. Ft.)

 
 
Tent Pad or Tent Platform
Costs

Department of Agriculture

 

 

 

 

Forest Service

9

1

144

$360

Department of Interior

 

 

 

 

National Park Service

3

0

 

 

Fish and Wildlife Service

1

0

 

 

Bureau of Land Management

2

0

 

 

Bureau of Reclamation

1

1

388

$1416

Department of Defense

 

 

 

 

Army Corps of Engineers

1

0

 

 

Total

17

2

 

 

 

Outdoor Recreation Access Routes

The accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas require outdoor recreation access routes to have firm and stable ground surfaces.[73]

Twenty-six (26) projects reviewed for this regulatory assessment constructed new camping and picnic areas, or altered existing outdoor recreation access routes. All 26 projects provided outdoor recreation access routes with firm and stable ground surfaces.[74] Three projects reported data on the size and costs of the outdoor recreation access routes as shown in Table 2.20.

 

Table 2.20 � Projects That Provided Firm and Stable Ground Surfaces at Outdoor Recreation Access Routes

 
 
Agency

#  Projects
Provided
Access Routes

# Projects Reported Data on Access Route
Size & Cost

Access Route
Length x Width
(Ft.)

Access
Route
Costs

Department of Agriculture

 

 

 

 

Forest Service

10

0

 

 

Department of Interior

 

 

 

 

National Park Service

6

2

400 x 6
300 x 4

$16,800
$8,244

Fish and Wildlife Service

1

0

 

 

Bureau of Land Management

4

1

75 x 5

$4,890

Bureau of Reclamation

4

0

 

 

Department of Defense

 

 

 

 

Army Corps of Engineers

1

0

 

 

Total

26

3

 

 


Surface Materials Used

The projects used a variety of materials to provide firm and stable ground surfaces as shown in Table 2.21. Some projects did not report data on materials or costs. Some projects included expenses for clearing and grading the site, adding fill, and providing timber or block borders around the perimeter of the area in the figures.

Table 2.21 � Firm & Stable Surface Materials and Costs

 
Materials

# Projects

Costs (Sq. Ft.)

Less than $1

$1 - 2.99

$3 � 4.99

$5 - 10

More than $10

Compacted:
Gravel/aggregate
Crusher/quarry fines
Decomposed granite
Limestone
Gravel/reject sands

 
10
5
2
1
1

 
2

 
4
1
1
 
1

 
 
 
1

 
1

 
 
1

Concrete

13

 

2

2

2

2

Asphalt

3

 

 

 

 

1

Hardened sand

1

 

 

 

 

 

Soil stabilizer

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.8 Costs

The Access Board developed a model based on the project reviews to estimate the additional costs associated with the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas compared to the baselines discussed in Chapter 1.

The model is based on the following assumptions:

Additional Unit Costs for Accessible Elements and Spaces

The model uses the following additional unit costs for accessible elements and spaces:

Baselines

As discussed in Chapter 1, the Access Board used two baselines for this regulatory assessment. The first baseline assesses the costs associated with the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas compared to the Federal land management agencies current accessibility policies and practices. The second baseline assesses the costs associated with the guidelines if accessibility were not required by the Access Board or otherwise.

Additional Annual Project Costs Associated with Guidelines

Based on the model, the additional annual costs for camping and picnic area projects associated with the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas compared to the Federal land management agencies current accessibility policies and practices are shown in Table 2.22 and range from $0.2 million to $0.4 million.

Table 2.22 � Additional Annual Project Costs Associated with Baseline 1: Guidelines Compared to Agencies' Current Accessibility Policies and Practices

Agency

Camping & Picnic Areas

Department of Agriculture

 

Forest Service

$0

Department of the Interior

 

National Park Service

$126,588  to  $244,951

Fish and Wildlife Service

$12,873

Bureau of Land Management

$21,098  to  $33,971

Bureau of Reclamation

$21,098  to  $42,196

Department of Defense

 

Army Corps of Engineers

$36,000 to $72,000

Total

$217,657 to $405,991

 

The additional annual costs for camping and picnic area projects associated with the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas if accessibility were not required and the Federal land management’s agencies’ projects do not include any accessible designs are shown in Table 2.23 and range from $0.9 million to $1.2 million.

Table 2.23 � Additional Annual Project Costs Associated with Baseline 2: Accessibility Not Required by Access Board or Otherwise

Agency

Camping & Picnic Areas

Department of Agriculture

 

Forest Service [75]

$0 to $320,000

Department of the Interior

 

National Park Service

$485,254

Fish and Wildlife Service

$21,098

Bureau of Land Management

$63,294

Bureau of Reclamation

$84,512

Department of Defense

 

Army Corps of Engineers

$266,049

Total

$920,207 to $1,240,207

 

Limitations

The model has the following limitations that may result in overestimating or underestimating the costs:

 


CHAPTER 3: TRAILS

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Trail Projects Covered by Guidelines
3.3 Technical Provisions and Exceptions for Accessible Trails
3.4 Review of Trail Projects
3.5 Costs

3.1 Introduction

This chapter discusses the provisions in the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas that apply to the construction and alteration of trails.

3.2 Trail Projects Covered By Guidelines

The trail miles managed by the Federal land management agencies are shown in Table 3.1.[76]

Table 3.1 � Trail Miles Managed by Federal Agencies

Agency

Trail Miles

Department of Agriculture

 

Forest Service

125,000 � 155,000 Total Miles

23,000 � 30,000 Miles Designated Hiker/Pedestrian Use

Department of Interior

 

National Park Service

17,135 Total Miles

8,884 Miles Designated Hiker/Pedestrian Use

Fish and Wildlife Service

Not available

Bureau of Land Management

Not available

Bureau of Reclamation

Not available

Department of Defense

 

Army Corps of Engineers

Not available

 

The accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas cover projects involving the construction of new trails and the alteration of existing trails that are designated for pedestrian use, and that connect to a designated trailhead or an accessible trail.[77] The guidelines distinguish between “maintenance and repair” and an “alteration” with regard to existing trails.[78] Maintenance and repair are work performed to return a trail to the condition or standard to which it was originally designed or built. Examples of maintenance and repair include clearing trails of encroaching brush and grasses; filling ruts; installing drainage structures to prevent erosion of the trail tread; and constructing retaining walls to support the trail tread. An alteration is work performed to change the original purpose, intent, or design of a trail. Examples of an alteration include changing the grade, width, or tread surface of a significant portion of an existing trail. Only projects that involve an alteration of existing trails are covered by the guidelines.

The Federal land management agencies spend a small portion of their capital improvement funds on the construction or alteration of trails covered by the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas. The Forest Service reported in its regulatory assessment for FSORAG and FSTAG that $35 million was spent in FY 2005 to improve 1,378 trail miles in the National Forest System, and estimated that 28 to 30 of these trail miles, or 2 percent of the total, are designated hiker/pedestrian trails and connect to a designated trail head or an accessible trail.[79]

The Access Board requested data from the other Federal land management agencies on trail projects funded in FY 2004 involving the construction or alteration of trails that are designated hiker/pedestrian trails and connect to a designated trail head or an accessible trail. The data provided by the other Federal land management agencies is presented in Table 3.2.[80]

Table 3.2 � FY 2004 Trail Projects Covered by Guidelines

Agency

Number of Projects

Total Project Costs

Department of the Interior

 

 

National Park Service

33

$2.7 million

Fish and Wildlife Service

3

$0.3 million

Bureau of Land Management

1

$25,000

Bureau of Reclamation

3

$1.2 million

Department of Defense

 

 

Army Corps of Engineers

4

$1 million

 

The Access Board reviewed 26 trail projects for this regulatory assessment involving the construction or alteration of trails covered by the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas, as shown in Table 3.3.[81]

Table 3.3 � Trail Projects Reviewed for Regulatory Assessment

Agency

Trail Projects Reviewed

Total Project Costs

Department of Agriculture

 

 

Forest Service

4

$0.3 million

Department of Interior

 

 

National Park Service

11

$1.7 million

Fish and Wildlife Service

3

$0.3 million

Bureau of Land Management

1

$25,000

Bureau of Reclamation

3

$1.2 million

Department of Defense

 

 

Army Corps of Engineers

4

$1.0 million

Total

26

$4.5 million

3.3 Technical Provisions and Exceptions for Accessible Trails

The accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas contain technical provisions for accessible trails. The technical provisions are summarized in Table 3.4. There are specific exceptions to the technical provisions where compliance with a provision would result in any of the following conditions:

A specific exception to a technical provision does not require compliance with the technical provision only where the condition for the exception exists. For example, where compliance with the technical provision for clear tread width would cause substantial harm to a significant natural feature, the trail would be required to comply with the technical provision for clear thread width before and after the significant natural feature; and the trail would have to comply with all the other technical provisions, unless specific exceptions also apply to the other technical provisions.

Table 3.4 � Technical Provisions for Accessible Trails and Specific Exceptions

Section

Technical Provision

Specific Exception

T303.3

Surface

Trail surface must be firm and stable.

Compliance not required where any condition for exceptions applies.

T303.4

Clear Tread Width

Clear tread width must be 36 inches minimum.

Clear tread width permitted to be reduced to 32 inches minimum where any condition for exceptions applies.

 

Compliance not required where 32 inches minimum clear tread width cannot be provided because any condition for exceptions applies.

T303.5

Openings

Openings in trail surfaces must not permit passage of ½ inch diameter sphere.

 

Elongated openings must be perpendicular or diagonal to dominant direction of travel.

Openings that do not permit passage of ¾ inch diameter sphere permitted where any condition for exceptions applies.

 

Compliance not required where openings that do not permit passage of ¾ inch diameter sphere cannot be provided because any condition for exceptions applies.

 

Elongated openings permitted to be parallel to dominant direction of travel if opening does not permit passage of ¼ inch sphere.

T303.6

Tread Obstacles

Tread obstacles must not exceed 2 inches high maximum.

Tread obstacles permitted to be 3 inches high maximum where running and cross slopes are 1:20 or less.

 

Compliance not required where tread obstacles greater than 3 inches high exist because any condition for exceptions applies.

T303.7

Passing Space

Passing spaces must be provided at intervals of 1000 feet maximum where clear tread width is less than 60 inches.

 

Passing spaces must be 60 inches by 60 inches minimum; or a T-shaped space within a 60 inch square minimum with arms and base 36 inches wide minimum that extend 48 inches minimum beyond the intersection.

Compliance not required where any condition for exceptions applies.

T303.8

Slopes

Cross slope must not exceed 1:20.

 

Running slope must not exceed:

1:20 for any distance

1:12 for up to 200 feet

1:10 for up to 30 feet

1:8 for up to 10 feet

 

 

Resting intervals required between each segment where running slope exceeds 1:20

 

No more than 30 percent of total trail length must exceed running slope of 1:12.

For open drainage structures, 1:7 running slope permitted for 5 feet maximum and 1:10 cross slope permitted at bottom of open drain.

 

Compliance not required where any condition for exceptions applies.

 

T303.9

Resting Intervals

Resting intervals must be 60 inches long minimum and at least as wide as the widest portion of the trail leading to the resting interval.

 

Resting interval cross slope must not exceed 1:20 in all directions.

Compliance not required where any condition for exceptions applies.

T303.10

Edge Protection

Where edge protection is provided, it must be 3 inches high minimum.

 

T321.1

Protruding Objects

Protruding objects on trails must comply with technical provisions for protruding objects.

 

Protruding objects on trails must have 80 inches high minimum vertical clearance.

Compliance not required where 80 inches high minimum vertical clearance cannot be provided because any condition for exceptions applies.  Barrier must be provided where vertical clearance is less than 80 inches high.

T322.2

Trail Signs

Signs must be placed at trailhead and designated access points identifying trails complying with technical provisions for accessible trails.

 

 

Where applying the specific exceptions to the technical provisions would result in any of the following conditions, a general exception exempts the trail from having to comply with any of the provisions beyond the first point where the specific exceptions apply:

3.4 Review of Trail Projects

The 26 trail projects that were reviewed for this regulatory assessment were requested to provide data on the projects using the form in Appendix C. The responses from the projects are summarized in Appendix D. Thirteen (13) projects constructed new trails only; 10 projects altered existing trails only; and 3 projects both constructed new trails and altered existing trails. The projects ranged in size from altering an existing 150 feet trail segment to a prominent feature, to constructing a new 6 mile trail. Approximately half the trails (12 projects) were one-half mile or less. The projects ranged in cost from a low of $12,177 plus volunteer labor to alter 1.3 miles of existing trail and construct 0.7 miles of new trail, to a high of $800,000 to construct a new trailhead and 0.5 miles of new trail. Approximately half the projects (12 projects) cost less than $100,000.

All but one project met all the technical provisions for accessible trails or applied the specific exceptions for certain technical provisions. A Bureau of Reclamation project that involved the construction of 6 miles of new trail did not meet the technical provisions for running slope and resting intervals, and did not indicate whether any conditions existed for applying specific exceptions to the technical provisions. A total of 6 projects applied the specific exceptions to the technical provisions as shown in Table 3.5, and cited one or more of the conditions for the exceptions.[83]

Table 3.5 � Specific Exceptions to Technical Provisions

Technical Provisions

Number of Projects Applying Specific Exceptions to Technical Provisions

T303.8 Running Slope

4

T303.8 Cross Slope

2

T303.9 Resting Intervals

3

T303.6 Tread Obstacles

1

T303.7 Passing Space

1

 

The most commonly cited condition for the exceptions (5 projects) was that compliance with the technical provision would not be feasible due to terrain or prevailing construction practices. Two projects cited the condition that compliance with the technical provision would cause substantial harm to cultural, historic, religious, or significant natural features or characteristics. One project cited the condition that compliance with the technical provision would substantially alter the nature of the setting or the purpose of the facility, or portion of the facility.

One project applied the general exception exempting a trail from all the technical provisions because the specific exceptions to the technical provisions would result in more than 15 percent of the trail not complying with any of the technical provisions.
A variety of materials were used to provide firm and stable trail surfaces. Thirteen (13) projects constructed or replaced wooden boardwalks or bridges over wet or muddy land for all or part of the trails. The other trail surface materials included native soils, crushed and compacted stone, asphalt, and concrete. Eighty-five (85) percent of the projects (22 projects) responded that, if accessibility were not required, the trails would still have been constructed with firm and stable surfaces. Fifty-four (54) percent of the projects (14 projects) responded that, if accessibility were not required, the trails would still have been constructed with 3 feet minimum clear tread width. The Federal land management agencies reported that trails that connect to a designated trailhead generally receive heavier use and are constructed with firm and stable surfaces, wider tread widths, and gentler slopes for resource protection and sustainability.

3.5 Costs

Trail design and construction costs are very site specific. The costs will vary depending on the length of the trail; the terrain or landform the trail will be traversing (e.g., elevation changes, water seeps or springs, rock croppings, protected areas); the type and number of structures needed to sustain the trail (e.g., retaining walls, bridges, drain lenses, puncheons); the tools and equipment used (e.g., hand tools, power tools, mechanized equipment); materials (e.g., native materials, imported materials); and labor resources. An accessible trail generally will cost more than a non-accessible trail. The features that will generally add costs to an accessible trail include tread width; slopes, especially if it results in lengthening the trail; and firm and stable surfaces. However, some trails are designed and constructed with wider tread ways, gentler slopes, and firm and stable surfaces for sustainability and other reasons not associated with accessibility, especially trails that connect to designated trail heads and are visited more frequently by the public. The project reviews showed that 54 percent of the trails would have been constructed with 3 feet minimum clear tread width if accessibility were not required, and that 85 percent of the trails would have been constructed with firm and stable surfaces if accessibility were not required. Thus, it is not possible to estimate specific additional costs associated with accessibility for all trail projects.

For this regulatory assessment, the Access Board used a model that assumes the number of projects funded annually by Federal land management agencies for the construction and alteration of trails that are designated for pedestrian use and that connect to a designated trailhead or another accessible trail is the same as in FY 2004. The model further assumes that the trails are one-half mile or less; that the projects cost less than $100,000; and that the additional costs associated with accessibility are approximately 20 percent or $20,000. The first two assumptions are based on the majority of projects reviewed in FY 2004, and may not be true for all future years. The last assumption is a reasonable estimate based on the fact that some projects will be constructed with wider tread ways, gentler slopes, or firm and stable surfaces for reasons not associated with accessibility, and that the conditions for applying specific exceptions to the technical provisions will not result in disproportionately higher costs.

As discussed in Chapter 1, the Access Board used two baselines for this regulatory assessment. The first baseline assesses the costs associated with the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas compared to the Federal land management agencies current accessibility policies and practices. The second baseline assesses the costs associated with the guidelines if accessibility were not required by the Access Board or otherwise.

Based on the model, the additional annual costs for trail projects associated with the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas compared to the Federal land management agencies current accessibility policies and practices are shown in Table 3.6 and range from $0.2 million to $0.5 million.

Table 3.6 � Additional Annual Costs for Projects Associated with Baseline 1: Guidelines Compared to Agencies' Current Accessibility Policies and Practices

Agency

Trails

Department of Agriculture

 

Forest Service

$0

Department of the Interior

 

National Park Service

$180,000  to  $340,000

Fish and Wildlife Service

$20,000 to $40,000

Bureau of Land Management

$20,000

Bureau of Reclamation

$20,000 to $40,000

Department of Defense

 

Army Corps of Engineers

$20,000 to $40,000

Total

$260,000 to $480,000

 

The additional annual costs for trail projects associated with the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas if accessibility were not required by the Access Board or otherwise are shown in Table 2.23 and range from $0.9 million to $1.2 million.

Table 3.6 � Additional Annual Costs for Projects Associated with Baseline 2: Accessibility Not Required by Access Board or Otherwise

Agency

Camping & Picnic Areas

Department of Agriculture

 

Forest Service[84]

$157,000 to $166,000

Department of the Interior

 

National Park Service

$660,000

Fish and Wildlife Service

$60,000

Bureau of Land Management

$20,000

Bureau of Reclamation

$60,000

Department of Defense

 

Army Corps of Engineers

$80,000

Total

$1,037,000 to $1,046,000




CHAPTER 4: OTHER OUTDOOR DEVELOPED AREAS

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Beach Access Routes
4.3 Outdoor Rinsing Showers
4.4 Designated Viewing Areas
4.5 Warming Huts
4.6 Wood Stoves and Fireplaces
4.7 Storage Facilities for Mobility Devices
4.8 Pit Toilets
4.9 Costs

4.1 Introduction

This chapter discusses the provisions in the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas that apply to the construction and alteration of beach access routes, outdoor rinsing showers, designated viewing areas, warming huts, wood stoves and fireplaces, storage facilities for mobility devices, and pit toilets.

Where the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas are expected to add costs to the construction or alteration any of the outdoor developed areas described in this chapter, the Access Board requested the Federal land management agencies to identify construction and alteration projects funded in FY 2004 that involved work on the outdoor developed areas. Their responses are discussed in this chapter.

4.2 Beach Access Routes

A beach access route is a pedestrian path that crosses the beach and extends to the water. The accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas require a beach access route to be provided when a new beach is constructed.[85] At existing beaches, the guidelines require a beach access route to be provided when a new pedestrian route is constructed from a developed site to, or along the edge of, the beach.[86] At existing beaches, the beach access route can be a permanent or temporary surface.[87] Products for providing beach access routes are commercially available, and range in cost from $2.25 to $10.00 per square foot.[88] The Federal land management agencies did not identify any projects in FY 2004 that involved the construction of new beaches, or the construction of new pedestrian routes at existing beaches.

4.3 Outdoor Rinsing Showers

Outdoor rinsing showers are generally provided at beaches to rinse off sand. They may also be provided at campgrounds. Outdoor rinsing showers are not intended for bathing, and can be open or have walls. The accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas require outdoor rinsing showers to have clear space for a wheelchair, a grab bar, and two spray heads.[89] The guidelines also require that the operable parts be within reach ranges and meet certain operation requirements. The Forest Service identified two projects that involved the construction of outdoor rinsing showers. A project funded by the Forest Service in FY 2002 to reconstruct a campground in the Apalachicola National Forest included the installation of an outdoor rinsing shower that met the guidelines. The Forest Service reported that the accessible unit cost $600 more than an inaccessible unit. A project funded by the Forest Service in FY 2003 to reconstruct a picnic and day use area in the Shawnee National Forest included the installation of a combination shower tower and drinking fountain costing $4,000 that met the guidelines.

4.4 Designated Viewing Areas

Designated viewing areas are areas that are designed and constructed to provide an unobstructed view of a mountain range, vista or other point of interest. The accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas require designated viewing areas to have a wheelchair turning space and to design safety barriers and guardrails so as to provide unobstructed viewing opportunities for persons seated in a wheelchair and persons of short stature.[90] The guidelines also require at least 20 percent of new telescopes and periscopes installed at a designated viewing area to have clear space for a wheelchair and to be usable from a seated position.[91] Where only one telescope or periscope is provided, the guidelines require that it also be usable from a standing position. The guidelines also require that the operable parts be within reach ranges and meet certain operation requirements. The guidelines are not expected to increase the cost of constructing or altering designated viewing areas.

4.5 Warming Huts

Warming huts are enclosed spaces used for temporary protection from the weather. The accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas require warming huts to have a wheelchair turning space.[92] The guidelines also require warming huts that have doors to comply with the technical provisions for doors. The guidelines are not expected to increase the cost of constructing or altering warming huts.

4.6 Wood Stoves and Fireplaces

The accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas require wood stoves and fireplaces to have clear space for a wheelchair, and the operable parts to be within reach ranges and meet certain operation requirements.[93] The guidelines are not expected to increase the cost of constructing or altering wood stoves or fireplaces.

4.7 Storage Facilities for Mobility Devices

The accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas require facilities such as ski areas, where persons who use wheelchairs transfer from one type of mobility device to another type of mobility device (e.g., from a wheelchair to adaptive ski equipment), to provide at least one storage facility for mobility devices.[94] The guidelines also require the operable parts of the storage facilities to be within reach ranges and meet certain operation requirements. Storage facilities for mobility devices cost $875.[95] The Federal land management agencies did not identify any projects in FY 2004 that involved the construction of storage facilities at new ski areas, or the alteration of storage facilities at existing ski areas.

4.8 Pit Toilets

Pit toilets are holes that are dug in the ground and covered by a toilet bench. They are usually located in remote areas. Pit toilets can be open or have walls. The accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas require pit toilets to have clear space for a wheelchair, and the toilet bench seat to be 17 inches minimum and 19 inches maximum above the ground or floor.[96] The guidelines also require pit toilets that have walls to provide grab bars. The guidelines will increase the cost of constructing and altering pit toilets that have walls due to the additional wall space needed to provide clear space for a wheelchair and the grab bars. The Federal land management agencies did not have information available on the number of pit toilets with walls that were constructed or altered on Federal lands in FY 2004, but the number is expected to be small.

4.9 Costs

The accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas are not expected to increase the cost of constructing or altering designated viewing areas, warming huts, or wood stoves and fireplaces. The provisions for beach access routes will add some costs to construction and alteration projects for beaches. However, the Federal land management agencies did not identify any projects funded in FY 2004 that included the construction of new beaches or the construction of new pedestrian routes at existing beaches, and it is likely that such projects will be rare. The provisions for outdoor rinsing showers and storage facilities for mobility devices will add less than $1,000 to project costs. Only the Forest Service identified two projects funded in FY 2004 that included the construction of outdoor rinsing showers. The other Federal land management agencies did not have data on projects that included the construction of outdoor rinsing showers or storage facilities for mobility devices. Nor did the Federal land management agencies have any data available on projects that included the construction or alteration of pit toilets with walls.

As discussed in Chapter 1, the Access Board used two baselines for this regulatory assessment. The first baseline assesses the costs associated with the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas compared to the Federal land management agencies current accessibility policies and practices. The second baseline assesses the costs associated with the guidelines if accessibility were not required by the Access Board or otherwise.

The Forest Service will not incur any additional costs associated with the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas for the other elements and spaces discussed in this chapter using the first baseline because all its new construction and alteration projects are required to use FSORAG, which generally meets or exceeds the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas. Since the other Federal land management agencies either did not identify any projects funded in FY 2004 that included the construction or alteration of the other elements and spaces discussed in this chapter or did not have any data available on such projects, the Access Board did not develop a model based on specific assumptions for estimating the additional costs for such projects associated with the guidelines. Rather, the Access Board assumed that in the case of the other Federal land management agencies that under both the first baseline and the second baselines the additional annual costs associated with the guidelines for the other elements and spaces discussed in this chapter will range from $0 to $50,000 for each agency. The Access Board also assumed in the case of the Forest Service that under the second baseline the additional annual costs associated with the guidelines for the other elements and spaces discussed in this chapter will range from $0 to $50,000.[97]

 


NOTES

[1] 42 U.S.C. § 4151 (1). In addition to facilities constructed or altered by Federal agencies, the Architectural Barriers Act covers facilities leased by Federal agencies; facilities financed by a Federal grant or loan, if the facilities are subject to design standards issued under the law authorizing the grant or loan; and facilities constructed by the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority. 42 U.S.C. § 4151 (2) - (4). The accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas do not apply to these other facilities.

[2] 29 U.S.C. § 792 (b) (3).

[3] The Architectural Barriers Act requires the General Services Administration to prescribe accessibility standards for facilities covered by the Architectural Barriers Act, except for Department of Defense and certain other facilities. 42 U.S.C. § 4152. The Architectural Barriers Act requires the Department of Defense to prescribe accessibility standards for its facilities, including Army Corps of Engineers facilities. 42 U.S.C. § 4153.

[4] The number of acres and annual visits on the Forest Service lands is from USDA Forest Service, Recreation Quick Facts (http://www.fs.fed.us.recreation/programs/facts/facts_sheet.shtml ). The number of acres and annual visits on the Department of the Interior lands is from information provided by the agencies and DOI Quick Facts (http://mits.doi.gov/quickfacts/tables_all.cfm ). The number of acres and annual visits on the Army Corps of Engineers' lands is from Corps National Camping Facilities (http://corpslakes.usace.army.mil/employees/recreation/pdfs/NationalMatrix05.pdf ).

[5] 36 CFR Part 1191. ABAAG is available on the Access Board website at: http://www.access-board.gov/ada-aba.gov . The General Services Administration has adopted ABAAG as the Architectural Barriers Act Accessibility Standard (ABAAS) for facilities subject to its authority. 41 CFR § 102-76.60. The Department of Defense plans to adopt ABAAG in July 2007 as the accessibility standard for facilities subject to its authority.

[6] Regulatory negotiation is a supplemental rulemaking process that involves negotiation among various interest groups and the agency to reach consensus on a rule.

[7] The other organization that participated in the regulatory negotiation included the American Society of Landscape Architects; American Camping Association; American Trails; Appalachian Trail Conservancy; Association of Blind Athletes; Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration; Hawaii Commission on Persons with Disabilities; KOA. Inc.; National State Park Directors; National Association of State Trail Administrators; National Center on Accessibility; National Council on Independent Living; National Park and Recreation Association; National Spinal Cord Injury Association; New York State Department of Environmental Conservation; Paralyzed Veterans of America; Partners for Access to the Woods; Rails to Trails Conservancy; State of Washington, Interagency Committee on Outdoor Recreation; TASH; and Whole Access.

[8] The regulatory negotiation committee's report, �Recommendations for Accessibility Guidelines: Outdoor Developed Areas,� is available on the Access Board website at: http://www.access-board.gov/outdoor-rec-rpt.htm . The Access Board reformatted the regulatory negotiation committee's report for the notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to be consistent with ABAAG's format.

[9] The Americans with Disabilities Act requires facilities constructed or altered by state and local governments, and places of public accommodation and commercial facilities constructed or altered by private entities to be accessible to individuals with disabilities, 42 U.S.C. §§ 12132, 12134, and 12183. The Access Board is required to establish minimum accessibility guidelines for facilities covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act. 29 U.S.C. § 792 (b) (3) and 42 U.S.C. § 12204.

[10] The Access Board will conduct a separate rulemaking in the future to issue accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas constructed or altered by state and local governments and private entities under the Americans with Disabilities Act when sufficient information is available to prepare a regulatory assessment of the impacts of the guidelines on those entities.

[11] The Rehabilitation, Comprehensive Services, and Developmental Disabilities Amendments of 1978 (PL 95-602) amended section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act (29 U.S.C. § 794) to prohibit discrimination on the basis of disability under any program or activity conducted by any Executive agency or by the United States Postal Service, and to require the head of each agency to promulgate regulations to carry out the amendments. Each of the Federal land management agencies has issued regulations pursuant to section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act that require their newly constructed or altered facilities to be accessible to individuals with disabilities. See: 7 CFR § 15e.151 (Department of Agriculture); 32 CFR § 56.8 (c) (3) (Department of Defense); and 43 CFR § 17.551 (Department of Interior). The Federal land management agencies have issued a series of directives and memoranda to their personnel beginning in the 1980's through the present emphasizing their obligation under section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act to make their outdoor recreation facilities accessible to individuals with disabilities. The directives and memoranda are too numerous to reference in this note, but are available on file at the Access Board.

[12] UFAS was adopted as the accessibility standard for Federal facilities in 1984. 49 FR 31528, August 7, 1984 .

[13] The practice of using the ANSI standard to design accessible outdoor recreation facilities was illustrated in �A Guide to Designing Accessible Outdoor Recreation Facilities� published by the Department of the Interior in 1980. The publication is available in the Access Board's library.

[14] The provisions for designing accessible camping and picnic areas and trails were published in DESIGN, Summer 1989, �Access to Outdoor Recreation Trails� and DESIGN, Fall 1989, �Accessible Picnic Areas and Campgrounds.� DESIGN is a quarterly publication of the National Park Service, Park Practice Program. The publications are available in the Access Board's library.

[15] The design guide is available in the Access Board's library.

[16] FSORAG and FSTAG are available on the Forest Service's website at: http://www.fs.fed.us/recreation/programs/accessibility/ .

[17] The amendments to the Forest Service Manual are available on the Forest Service's website at: http://www.fs.fed.us/recreation/programs/accessibility/ .

[18] The National Center on Accessibility's best practices bulletins are available on its website at: http://www.ncaonline.org/monographs/index.shtml .

[19] The Army Corps of Engineers �Recreation Facility and Customer Service Standards� are available on its website at: http://www.usace.army.mil/inet/usace-docs/eng-manuals/em1110-1-400/toc.htm .

[20] The Army Corps of Engineer's accessibility policies, including best practices for accessible design, are on its website at: http://corpslakes.usace.army.mil/employees/access/access.html .

[21] As discussed in the subsequent chapters, the Access Board reviewed a sample of the Federal land management agencies' construction and alteration projects. The review showed the percentage of the Department of the Interior projects that met or exceeded the guidelines were as follows: recreational vehicle parking areas 44 percent (4 of 9 projects); picnic tables 70 percent (17 of 24 projects); tent pads 71 percent (5 of 7 projects); pedestal grills 75 percent (9 of 12 projects); fire rings 80 percent (12 of 15 projects); trails 94 percent (17 of 18 projects); and outdoor recreation access routes 100 percent (15 of 15 projects).

[22] The Army Corps of Engineers �Recreation Facility and Customer Service Standards� require recreational vehicle parking areas to be at least 12 feet wide, and the guidelines require recreational vehicle parking areas to be at least 20 feet wide at accessible camping spaces.

[23] As discussed in the subsequent chapters, the Access Board reviewed a sample of the Federal land management agencies' construction and alteration projects. The review showed that 60 percent of the Army Corps of Engineers projects (3 of 5 projects) provided recreational vehicle parking areas at least 20 feet wide at accessible camping spaces, and that 100 percent of the Army Corps of Engineers projects (4 of 4 projects) met the guidelines for trails.

[24] The Access Board also requested the Federal land management agencies to provide data on other outdoor developed areas projects. As discussed in Chapter 4, the agencies reported that they did not fund any other outdoor developed areas projects that included elements and spaces covered by the guidelines for or that data was not available.

[25] The Forest Service's regulatory assessment is available on its website at: http://www.fs.fed.us/recreation/programs/accessibility/ .

[26] The Federal land management agencies selected the projects reviewed by the Access Board. The Access Board requested the agencies to select at least one project from each of their regions, where applicable; and to pick projects that represent diverse settings and terrains. The projects were either funded in FY 2004, or were funded in a prior fiscal year but the work was completed in FY 2004. The Forest Service selected projects that were reviewed in its regulatory assessment for FSORAG and FSTAG. The Forest Service requested that a camping and picnic area project at the White Mountain National Forest , which was reviewed in its regulatory assessment, not be included in this regulatory assessment because there were significant personnel changes at the White Mountain National Forest and it would be difficult to provide additional information about the project. Nine of the trail projects reviewed in the Forest Service's regulatory assessment involved only maintenance and repair work, and are not included in this regulatory assessment because the guidelines do not apply to maintenance and repair work. Another trail project in the Santa Fe National Forest reviewed in the Forest Service's regulatory assessment is not included in this regulatory assessment because the trail did not connect to a designated trail head or an accessible trail, and is not covered by the guidelines. The review included all the camping and picnic area projects funded by the Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Land Management, and Bureau of Reclamation in FY 2004 that included the construction or alteration of elements and spaces covered by the guidelines.

[27] The Forest Service's additional annual costs for camping and picnic area and trail projects are from its regulatory assessment for FSORAG and FSTAG. The Forest Service used a different methodology in its regulatory assessment than the Access Board used in this regulatory assessment. The differences between the methodologies are discussed in the subsequent chapters.

[28] Under Executive Order 12866, �economically significant� regulatory actions generally are actions that have an annual effect on the economy of $100 million or more.

[29] U.S. Census Bureau, Americans With Disabilities: 2002 (http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/disability/sipp/disab02/awd02.html ).

[30] The number of camping and picnic areas provided by the Forest Service is from USDA Forest Service, Recreation Quick Facts (http://www.fs.fed.us.recreation/programs/facts/facts_sheet.shtml ). The number of camping and picnic areas provided by the National Park Service data is from its Asset Management System. The number of camping areas provided by the Bureau of Land Management and Bureau of Reclamation is from DOI Quick Facts (http://mits.doi.gov/quickfacts/tables_all.cfm ). The number of camping areas provided by the Army Corps of Engineers is from Corps National Camping Facilities (http://corpslakes.usace.army.mil/employees/recreation/pdfs/NationalMatrix05.pdf ).

[31] The number of projects and total project costs for the National Park Service is from its Project Management Information System (PMIS). Camping and picnic area projects that are smaller components of larger park wide projects, or are part of annual cyclical maintenance programs, or are funded through external fund raising may not be identified through the PMIS. The number of projects and total project costs for the Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Land Management, Bureau of Reclamation, and Army Corps of Engineers are from information provided by their regional and field offices in response to data calls.

[32] Additional information on selection of the projects is provided in note 26.

[33] Outdoor Developed Areas Accessibility Guidelines, section T218.2.

[34] Outdoor Developed Areas Accessibility Guidelines, sections T206.2, T207.2, and T208.2.

[35] Outdoor Developed Areas Accessibility Guidelines, section T202.3.

[36] Outdoor Developed Areas Accessibility Guidelines, sections T206.4 and T306.2.

[37] Federal Supply Group 78, Category 192 37B, Park and Recreational Tables, Benches, Outdoor Pool and Patio Furniture and Bleachers (http://www.gsaelibrary.gsa.gov/ElibMain/SinDetails ). The Access Board did not attempt to verify whether the picnic tables actually meet the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas.

[38] As for the other 18 projects, 7 projects did not identify the manufacturers; 6 projects provided picnic tables from manufacturers that are not on the Federal Supply Schedule; and 5 projects provided custom made picnic tables. Some of the projects were contracted out and the contractors may not have used the Federal Supply Schedule.

[39] The costs do not include shipping and assembly. There is no difference in shipping costs and assembly time for accessible and non-accessible designs of the same type picnic table. The cost for an 8 foot long picnic table ranges from $296 to $931 for the non-accessible design, and from $366 to $1001 for the accessible design (or $70 additional cost for the accessible design compared to the non-accessible design made from the same materials) in the same manufacturer's catalogue in July 2006.

[40] The Forest Service projects provided only accessible picnic tables, but seven of the Forest Service projects also reported cost information for comparable models of non-accessible picnic tables for cost comparison. The Forest Service requested that cost information for the comparable model non-accessible picnic tables reported by Shawnee National Forest not be included in Table 2.7 because the accessible picnic tables provided as part the picnic area project included site preparation and installation costs, and the cost information reported for the comparable model non-accessible picnic tables did not include site preparation and installation costs.

[41] The two National Park Service projects, the Bureau of Land Management project, and the Bureau of Reclamation project were picnic area projects. At least 50 percent of the picnic tables provided in picnic areas must be accessible.

[42] Outdoor Developed Areas Accessibility Guidelines, sections T307.3 and T308.3. The operable parts on fire rings are required to be within reach ranges and meet technical provisions for operable parts.

[43] Federal Supply Group 78, Category 192 371, Park and Playground Equipment (http://www.gsaelibrary.gsa.gov/ElibMain/SinDetails ).

[44] The same fire rings cost $120 for the non-accessible design and $195 for the accessible design (or $75 additional cost for the accessible design compared to the non-accessible design) in the manufacturer's catalogue in July 2006. The fire rings have a single wall and single level cooking grate. A heat shield option is available on the accessible fire ring for $48. The fire rings are also available in other diameters and heights.

[45] Some manufacturers make non-accessible fire rings only with a single wall and accessible fire rings only with a dual wall, and the additional costs for accessible fire rings made by these manufacturers are on the high end of range.

[46] The Forest Service projects provided only accessible fire rings, but seven of the Forest Service projects also reported cost information for comparable models of non-accessible fire rings for cost comparison. The Wasatch-Cache National Forest reported that accessible fire rings cost $300 more than non-accessible fire rings. This figure is not included the last column of Table 2.10 to be consistent with the regulatory assessment prepared by the Forest Service for FSORAG and FSTAG. The Wasatch-Cache National Forest prefers accessible fire rings over the non-accessible fire rings because accessible fire rings offer other external benefits, including increased facility for children and the elderly. The next highest range of additional costs for accessible fire rings, which is $120 as reported by Gallatin National Forest , is used in the last column of Table 2.10.

[47] The National Park Service project replaced 200 fire rings in a camping area, and provided only 2 accessible fire rings. At least 8 accessible fire rings must be provided in camping areas with 200 camping spaces.

[48] Outdoor Developed Areas Accessibility Guidelines, section T308.3.

[49] Three Forest Service projects and a Bureau of Land Management project reported additional costs ranging from $5 to $100 for accessible pedestal grills.

[50] Outdoor Developed Areas Accessibility Guidelines, section T209.1 and T309.3.

[51] One Forest Service project reported $30 additional costs for accessible trash containers.

[52] Outdoor Developed Areas Accessibility Guidelines, sections T217.1, T317.3, and T317.4.

[53] Two Forest Service Projects reported additional costs of $350 and $700 for water hydrant spouts. The spout that cost an additional $700 has an automatic shut-off. The accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas do not require an automatic shut-off.

[54] Outdoor Developed Areas Accessibility Guidelines, sections T217.1and T317.4.

[55] Outdoor Developed Areas Accessibility Guidelines, sections T213.2, T313.3, T313.4, and T313.5.

[56] The accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas require accessible camping spaces to be identified by signs. Outdoor Developed Areas Accessibility Guidelines, sections T222 and T322. Signs are not required where all the camping spaces are accessible, or where the spaces are assigned upon arrival or through a reservation system. The Federal land management agencies have established reservation systems for their camping areas as part of the E-government initiative, and would not be required to provide signs at accessible camping spaces. Information on the Federal land management agencies' reservations systems is available on the web at: http://www.recreation.gov/reservinf.jsp .

[57] Outdoor Developed Areas Accessibility Guidelines, section T218.2.

[58] Outdoor Developed Areas Accessibility Guidelines, section T202.3.

[59] The number of accessible camping spaces required in an alteration is based on the total number of camping spaces in the camping area, and not the number of camping spaces altered. The example assumes that none of the camping spaces in the camping area were accessible prior to the alteration. If 3 of the camping spaces were accessible prior to the alteration, none of the altered camping spaces are required to be accessible because the total number of accessible camping spaces required for new construction (i.e., 3 accessible camping spaces in a camping area with 30 camping spaces) was met.

[60]The Army Corps of Engineers �Recreation Facility and Customer Service Standards� (http://www.usace.army.mil/inet/usace-docs/eng-manuals/em1110-1-400/toc.htm ) require recreational vehicle parking areas to be at least 12 feet wide and 70 feet long to accommodate a trailer plus a towing vehicle such as a car or truck. The Bureau of Reclamation �Recreation Facility Design Guidelines� (www.usbr.gov/pmts/architecture/recfac/) provide for recreational vehicle parking areas to be at least 14 feet wide and 60 feet long. The Army Corps of Engineers standards and Bureau of Reclamation guidelines recommend that recreational vehicle parking areas have hardened surfaces for public convenience and ease of maintenance.

[61] Outdoor Developed Areas Accessibility Guidelines, section T318.2.1. Accessible recreational vehicle parking areas are required to meet technical provisions for slope.

[62] Outdoor Developed Areas Accessibility Guidelines, sections T218.2.1 Exception and T318.2.2.

[63] Outdoor Developed Areas Accessibility Guidelines, sections T218.3 and T318.2.3. Accessible parking spaces and access aisles in general parking areas are required to have a firm and stable surface and meet technical provisions for slope.

[64] The Forest Service project provided one 20 feet wide and nine 16 feet wide recreational vehicle parking areas. The National Park Service project provided thirty 16 feet wide recreational vehicle parking areas. The Bureau of Reclamation project provided one 16 feet wide recreational vehicle parking area. One Army Corps of Engineers project provided 12 feet wide recreational vehicle parking areas. The other Army Corps of Engineers project did not provide any information about the width of the recreational vehicle parking areas.

[65] Outdoor Developed Areas Accessibility Guidelines, section T318.3. Accessible tent pads and tent platforms and the surrounding clear space are required to have a firm and stable ground surface and meet technical provisions for slope. Accessible tent platforms are also required to have edge protection and a means to access the tent platforms.

[66] Outdoor Developed Areas Accessibility Guidelines, sections T204 and T304. Outdoor recreation access routes are required to have a firm and stable ground surface and meet technical provisions for clear tread width, openings, obstacles, passing space, cross slope and running slope, resting intervals, edge protection, and protruding objects.

[67] Outdoor Developed Areas Accessibility Guidelines, section T204.2, Exception 2.

[68] Outdoor Developed Areas Accessibility Guidelines, sections T202.3.

[69] Outdoor Developed Areas Accessibility Guidelines, sections T202.3 Exception, T306.2, T306.3, T 306.4, T307.2, T308.2, T309.2, T313.2, T317.2. The minimum size of the clear spaces vary from 30 inches by 48 inches at accessible trash containers, benches, utilities, and wheelchair spaces at picnic tables; 48 inches by 48 inches at accessible fire rings and pedestal grills; 60 inches by 60 inches at accessible water hydrant spouts; and 3 feet wide around accessible picnic tables. The clear spaces are also required to meet technical provisions for slope.

[70] Many projects provided pads in all the camping spaces and picnic sites for public convenience and ease of maintenance. The Army Corps of Engineers �Recreation Facility and Customer Service Standards� (http://www.usace.army.mil/inet/usace-docs/eng-manuals/em1110-1-400/toc.htm ) require all campsites to have pads that are up to 625 square feet. The Bureau of Reclamation Recreation �Facility Design Guidelines� (www.usbr.gov/pmts/architecture/recfac/ provide for all campsites to have pads that are 650 square feet.

[71] Outdoor Developed Areas Accessibility Guidelines, sections T304.x.

[72] Many projects provided firm and stable ground surfaces at all the tent pads for public convenience and ease of maintenance. The Army Corps of Engineers �Recreation Facility and Customer Service Standards� (http://www.usace.army.mil/inet/usace-docs/eng-manuals/em1110-1-400/toc.htm ) require all tent pads to have firm and stable ground surfaces such as crushed stone screenings for a durable all-weather surface. The Bureau of Reclamation �Recreation Facility Design Guidelines� (www.usbr.gov/pmts/architecture/recfac/ ) provide for all tent pads to have firm and stable ground surfaces.

[73] Outdoor Developed Areas Accessibility Guidelines, sections T318.3.2.

[74] Many projects provided routes with firm and stable ground surfaces for public convenience and ease of maintenance. The Army Corps of Engineers �Recreation Facility and Customer Service Standards� (http://www.usace.army.mil/inet/usace-docs/eng-manuals/em1110-1-400/toc.htm ) require all campsites to provide routes with firm and stable ground surfaces to the pads where the picnic tables, fire rings and pedestal grills are located.

[75] The Forest Service's additional annual costs for camping and picnic area projects are from its regulatory assessment for FSORAG and FSTAG. The Forest Service used a different methodology in its regulatory assessment than the Access Board used in this regulatory assessment. The Forest Service asked the personnel who worked on the 13 projects reviewed for its regulatory assessment whether accessible designs would be used in the absence of accessibility requirements. The Forest Service personnel from 7 projects responded that accessible designs would be used for all the elements and spaces in project in the absence of accessibility requirements because the public prefers accessible designs or there were other reasons for using accessible designs. The Forest Service personnel from the other 6 projects responded that accessible designs would be used for only some of the elements and spaces in the project in the absence of accessibility requirements because the public prefers accessible designs or there were other reasons for using accessible designs. The Forest Service estimated the percentage increase in the project costs for accessible designs used solely to meet accessibility requirements to range from 0 percent to 4.7 percent. The Forest Service reported that it expended $6.9 million in FY 2003 on camping and picnic projects that would be subject to FSORAG, and multiplied this expenditure by 0 percent and 4.7 percent to estimate the lower and upper range of additional annual costs associated with FSORAG if accessibility were not required.

[76] The Forest Service trail miles are based on in its Infra System as of May 2006. Not all units completed reporting to the data base. The Forest Service extrapolated the data nationwide. The National Park Service trail miles are based on its Facility Management Software System as of July 2006.

[77] Outdoor Developed Areas Accessibility Guidelines, sections T104.4, T201.1, T202.3, and T203.1.

[78] Outdoor Developed Areas Accessibility Guidelines, sections T104.1 and T202.3, and Advisory T202.3.

[79] The Forest Service extrapolated from the proportion of hiker/pedestrian trail miles to total trail miles on its lands that 254 to 267 of the trail miles improved in FY 2005 are designated hiker/pedestrian trails. The Forest Service further extrapolated from a review of trail projects funded in FY 2003 at 13 national forests and a national scenic trail that 28 to 30 of the estimated 254 to 267 hiker/pedestrian trail miles improved in FY 2005 connect to a designated trailhead or an accessible trail.

[80] The number of projects and total project costs for the National Park Service is from its Project Management Information System (PMIS). Trail projects that are funded through external fund raising, or constructed or altered by volunteer organizations may not be identified through the PMIS. The number of projects and total project costs for the Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Land Management, Bureau of Reclamation, and Army Corps of Engineers are from information provided by their regional and field offices in response to data calls.

[81] Additional information on selection of the projects is provided in note 26.

[82] Outdoor Developed Areas Accessibility Guidelines, section T303.2. The segment of the trail between the trailhead and the first point where the specific exceptions apply is exempt from the technical provisions if the trail segment is 500 feet or less in distance, unless there is a prominent feature on the trail segment in which case the segment of the trail between the trailhead and the prominent feature must comply with the technical provisions.

[83] Three projects claimed a specific exception for the technical provision for edge protection. There is no specific exception for edge protection. The technical provision for edge protection only applies where edge protection is provided. The persons completing the data form may not have understood the application of the technical provision for edge protection, and claimed a specific exception where no edge protection was provided.

[84] The Forest Service's additional annual costs for trail projects are from its regulatory assessment for FSORAG and FSTAG. The Forest Service used a different methodology in its regulatory assessment than the Access Board used in this regulatory assessment. The Forest Service improved 1,378 trail miles in FY 2005. The Forest Service extrapolated from its total trail miles and trail miles designated for hiker/pedestrian use that 28 to 30 of the improved trail miles would be subject to FSTAG. The Forest Service further extrapolated from a review of 5 trail construction projects funded in FY 2003 that 20 percent of the 28 to 30 trail miles improved in FY 2005 that would be subject to FSTAG would incur additional costs associated with FSTAG and that the additional costs per mile for accessible design would be $29,700.

[85] Outdoor Developed Areas Accessibility Guidelines, sections T205 and T305. Beach access routes are required to meet technical provisions for openings, obstacles, passing space, turning space, cross slope and running slope, edge protection, and protruding objects.

[86] Outdoor Developed Areas Accessibility Guidelines, section T205.3.

[87] Outdoor Developed Areas Accessibility Guidelines, section T205.3, Exception 1.

[88] Information on beach access route products is available on the National Center on Accessibility website: http://www.ncaonline.org/products/index.php4?cat=Beach%20Surfaces .

[89] Outdoor Developed Areas Accessibility Guidelines, sections T220 and T320. On post mounted showers, a vertical or circular grab bar must be affixed to the post. On wall mounted showers, a horizontal grab bar must be affixed to the wall. One spray head must be located between 48 inches and 54 inches above the ground or floor, and the other spray head must be located at least 72 inches above the ground or floor.

[90] Outdoor Developed Areas Accessibility Guidelines, sections T211 and T311.

[91] Outdoor Developed Areas Accessibility Guidelines, sections T212 and T312.

[92] Outdoor Developed Areas Accessibility Guidelines, sections T219, T319, and T408.

[93] Outdoor Developed Areas Accessibility Guidelines, sections T210 and T310.

[94] Outdoor Developed Areas Accessibility Guidelines, sections T215 and T315.

[95] American Bicycle Security Company, Wheel Chair Security Locker, Model 201CW. Information on the locker is available on the web at: http://www.ameribike.com/catalog/bike/200-series/200.html .

[96] Outdoor Developed Areas Accessibility Guidelines, sections T216, T316, and T409.

[97] The Forest Service did not address in its regulatory assessment of FSORAG and FSTAG the additional costs associated with FSORAG for the other elements and spaces discussed in this chapter in the absence of accessibility requirements.



APPENDIX A: CAMPING AND PICNIC AREA PROJECTS DATA REQUEST

FY 2004 Camping and Picnic Area Projects

The Access Board is collecting information on camping and picnic area construction and alteration projects undertaken by Federal agencies in FY 2004 as part of a regulatory assessment of the costs and benefits of proposed accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas. This form is divided into five parts:

• Part 1 collects general information about the projects.

• Part 2 collects information on camping and picnic elements such as picnic tables, fire rings, pedestal grills, trash containers, benches, and utilities.

• Part 3 collects information on tent pads and platforms.

• Part 4 collects information on campground parking spaces, including recreational camping vehicle and trailer spaces, and parking spaces adjacent to tent camping spaces and camp shelters.

• Part 5 collects information on outdoor recreation access routes that connect accessible elements and spaces within camping and picnic areas.

The relevant scoping and technical provisions of the proposed accessibility guidelines are summarized in each part. Scoping provisions specify what accessible features must be provided, and how many elements must be accessible when multiple elements are provided. Technical provisions specify the design criteria for accessible features.

There will be a conference call on to go over the form. To participate in the conference call, call and enter this pass code: .

If you have questions as you complete the form, please call or e-mail the following individuals at the Access Board:

Bill Botten 202-272-0014 botten@access-board.gov
Peggy Greenwell 202-272-0017 greenwell@access-board.gov
Jim Raggio 202-272-0040 raggio@access-board.gov

April 13, 2005

Part 1 – General

Facility:
Location:
Camping/Picnic Area:
Name of Person Completing Form:
Telephone Number:
E-Mail Address:

What type of work did the project involve?
_____Construction of a new camping or picnic area
_____Alterations to an existing camping or picnic area

Briefly describe the scope of work of the project (e.g., constructed 10 new tent pads; replaced 10 picnic tables).

If the project involved alterations to an existing camping area:
How many camping spaces are provided in the camping area? _____
How many of the camping spaces were accessible before the project was undertaken? _____

If the project involved alterations to an existing picnic area:
How many picnic tables are provided in the picnic area? _____
How many of the picnic tables were accessible before the project was
undertaken? _____

What was the total cost of the project?

If accessible features in camping and picnic areas benefit others in addition to individuals with disabilities, or accessible features are provided for reasons in addition to providing access to individual with disabilities, describe the additional benefits or reasons below.

 


Part 2 – Camping and Picnic Elements

Where camping and picnic elements are provided, the proposed accessibility guidelines require a minimum number of the elements to be accessible as summarized below.

Element

Minimum Number of Accessible Elements Required

Picnic Tables

Fire Rings

Pedestal Grills

In picnic area, 50 percent; 100 percent if two or fewer

In accessible camping spaces, each one

One wheelchair space at accessible picnic tables, where table top perimeter is 24 linear ft. or less

If table top perimeter exceeds 24 linear ft., call Access Board for number of wheelchair spaces

Fireplaces

Wood Stoves

Each one

Trash Containers

Each one; 50 percent in multi-bin containers

Benches

50 percent; 100 percent if one

One armrest on 50 percent of accessible benches

Utility Sinks

5 percent

Utilities

Where serving accessible elements, each one

If manufactured or prefabricated camping and picnic elements were provided as part of the project, fill-in the information requested below for each element that was provided.

1

2

3

4

 

Element

 

Manufacturer

Number of  Elements Provided

Cost Per Element

Accessible

Non-Accessible

Total

Accessible

Non-Accessible

Picnic Tables

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fire Rings

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pedestal Grills

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fireplaces

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wood Stoves

 

 

 

 

 

 

Trash Containers

 

 

 

 

 

 

Benches

 

 

 

 

 

 

Utility Sinks

 

 

 

 

 

 

If picnic tables were provided, what is the length of the accessible table _____ (ft) and the non-accessible table _____ (ft)?

If utilities were provided as part of the project, specify the type of utility provided such as hand pump, sewage hook-up, or electrical service in column one and fill-in the information requested below.

1

2

3

Utility

(Specify Type)

Number of  Elements Provided

Cost Per Element

Accessible

Non-Accessible

Total

Accessible

Non-Accessible

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

If custom made camping and picnic elements were provided as part of the project, list the elements in column one and fill-in the information requested below. Do not list ground surfaces, tent pads or platforms, parking spaces, or toilets in column one.

1

2

3

 

Element

Number of  Elements Provided

Cost Per Element

Accessible

Non-Accessible

Total

Accessible

Non-Accessible

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

If accessible camping and picnic elements were provided as part of the project and any technical provisions in the proposed accessibility guidelines summarized below were not met, check the technical provisions that were not met.

Accessible Element

Check (√) Technical Provisions Not Met

Picnic Tables

 

Wheelchair space 30 in. by 48 in. min.

 

Wheelchair knee space 27 in. high; 30 in. wide; 19 in. deep min.

 

Wheelchair toe clearance 9 in. high min.;

extend 5 in. min. beyond knee clearance

Fire Rings

 

Fire surface height 9 in. min. above ground

 

Raised edge 24 in. max. to building fire surface

Pedestal Grills

 

Cooking surface height 15 in. to 34 in. above ground

 

Operable parts

Fireplaces, Wood Stoves

 

Operable parts

Trash Containers

 

Operable parts (exception for hinged lids and controls

designed to keep out large animals)

Benches

 

Seat height 17 in. to 19 in. above ground

 

Back support full length of bench

 

Armrest with sufficient structural strength

Utility Sinks

 

Height 34 in. max. above ground

 

Bowl bottom 15 in. min. above ground

 

Operable parts

Utilities

 

Water spouts 28 in. to 36 in. above ground

 

Operable parts (exceptions for hand pumps and sewage hookups)


Where the technical provisions refer to operable parts, the operable parts must be placed within one of the reach ranges specified below; must be operable with one hand; and must not require tight grasping, pinching, twisting of the wrist, or more than 5 lbs. force to activate.

Reach Ranges

Unobstructed

Obstructed

Forward Reach

 

Depth of obstruction 25 in. max. 

Clear ground space must extend beneath the element for

a distance not less than the reach depth over the obstruction 

High Reach

48 in. max.

48 in. max. for reach depth to 20 in. max.

Low Reach

15 in. max.

44 in. max. for reach depth greater than 20 in. to 25 in. max.

Side Reach

Obstruction up to 10 in. max. permitted between clear ground space and element

Depth of obstruction 24 in. max. 

Height of obstruction 34 in. max.

High Reach

48 in. max.

48 in. max. for reach depth to 10 in. max.

Low Reach

15 in. max.

46 in. max. for reach depth greater than 10 in. to 24 in. max.

 

If a new camping or picnic area was constructed, or if an existing camping or picnic area was altered and the ground surface was also altered, fill-in the information requested below.

The proposed accessibility guidelines require certain spaces at accessible camping and picnic elements specified below to be firm and stable, and not exceed 1:50 slope in all directions or 1:33 slope where necessary for drainage. In existing camping and picnic areas, where camping and picnic elements are replaced and the ground surface is not altered, the proposed accessibility guidelines do not require the ground surface to meet these requirements.

Accessible Element

Space

Picnic Tables

Wheelchair space 30 in. by 48 in. min

Clear space 36 in. min. (from back edge of seat) around

usable portion of table

Fire Rings, Pedestal Grills, Fireplaces, Wood Stoves

Clear space 48 in. by 48 in. min. at usable portion

of fire ring or cooking surface

Trash Containers, Benches, Utility Sinks, Utilities (Except Water Spouts)

Clear space 30 in. by 48 in. min.

Water Spouts

Clear space 60 in. by 60 in. min.

Is the native surface firm and stable? Yes ____ No ____

If the native surface is not firm and stable, describe how a firm and stable surface was provided at the accessible camping and picnic elements; the total number of square feet of firm and stable surface provided; and the cost per square foot for providing a firm and stable surface.

Does the ground surface at the accessible camping and picnic elements have a 1:50 slope in all directions or 1:33 slope where necessary for drainage? Yes ___ No ___
If additional costs were incurred to provide a 1:50 slope in all directions or 1:33 slope where necessary for drainage, estimate the costs.

Exceptions are permitted where compliance with certain technical provisions would:
(1) Cause substantial harm to cultural, historic, religious, or significant natural features or characteristics;
(2) Substantially alter the nature of setting or the purpose of the facility;
(3) Require construction methods or materials prohibited by federal, state or local law; or
(4) Not be feasible due to terrain or prevailing construction practices.
Do any of these conditions apply to the project? Yes ____ (Condition #: _____)
No _____

If accessible camping spaces were provided as part of the project, fill-in the information requested below.

The proposed accessibility guidelines require accessible camping spaces to be identified by a sign displaying the International Symbol of Accessibility, unless all the camping spaces are accessible, or the camping spaces are assigned upon arrival or through a reservation system.

Are the camping spaces assigned upon arrival or through a reservation system?
Yes ____ No ____

Are the accessible camping spaces identified by a sign displaying the International Symbol of Accessibility? Yes ____ No ____

What is the cost for providing a sign displaying the International Symbol of Accessibility?


Part 3 –Tent Pads and Platforms

Where tent pads and platforms are provided, the proposed accessibility guidelines require a minimum number of the spaces to be accessible in accordance with the table below. If more than 500 tent pads and platforms are provided, call the Access Board for the number of accessible spaces required.

Number of  Camping Spaces

Minimum Number of Accessible Camping Spaces Required

1

1

2 to 25

2

26 to 50

3

51 to 75

4

76 to 100

5

101 to 150

7

151 to 200

8

201 to 300

10

301 to 400

12

401 to 500

13

If tent pads and platforms were provided as part of the project, fill-in the information requested below.

 

Camping Space

Number of  Camping Spaces Provided           

Accessible

Non-Accessible

Total

Tent Pads

 

 

 

Tent Platforms

 

 

 

If accessible tent pads or platforms were provided as part of the project and any technical provisions in the proposed accessibility guidelines summarized below were not met, check the technical provisions that were not met.

Accessible Camping Space

Check (√) Technical Provisions Not Met

Tent Pads

 

Clear space 48 in. min. around tent pad

 

Firm and stable surface at tent pad and clear space around tent pad

 

1:50 slope or 1:33 slope where necessary for drainage at tent pad

and clear space around tent pad

 

Tent pad surface allows use of tent stakes

Tent Platforms

 

Clear space 48 in. min. around tent platform

 

Firm and stable surface at tent platform and

clear space around tent platform

 

1:50 slope or 1:33 slope where necessary for drainage

at tent platform and clear space around tent platform

 

Curb 3 in. min. or other means of edge protection on tent platform

 

Tent platform approachable by ramp, transfer,

or directly from adjacent ground surface

Is the native surface firm and stable? Yes ____ No ____

If the native surface is not firm and stable, describe how a firm and stable ground surface was provided at the accessible tent pads and platforms; the total number of square feet of firm and stable ground surface provided; and the cost per square foot for providing a firm and stable ground surface.

If additional costs were incurred to provide a 1:50 slope or 1:33 slope where necessary for drainage at the accessible tent pads and platforms, estimate the costs.

 

Part 4 – Campground Parking Spaces

If recreational camping vehicle and trailer spaces were provided as part of the project, fill-in the information requested below.

Where recreational camping vehicle and trailer spaces are provided, the proposed accessibility guidelines require a minimum number of the spaces to be accessible in accordance with the table below. If more than 500 recreational camping vehicle and trailer spaces are provided, call the Access Board for the number of accessible spaces required.

Number of  Camping Spaces

Minimum Number of Accessible Camping Spaces Required

1

1

2 to 25

2

26 to 50

3

51 to 75

4

76 to 100

5

101 to 150

7

151 to 200

8

201 to 300

10

301 to 400

12

401 to 500

13

Number of recreational camping vehicle and trailer spaces provided as part of project: ______

Number of accessible recreational camping vehicle and trailer spaces provided as part of project: _____

If accessible recreational camping vehicle and trailer spaces were provided as part of the project and any technical provisions in the proposed accessibility guidelines summarized below were not met, check the technical provisions that were not met.

Check (√) Technical Provisions Not Met

 

Spaces 20 ft. wide min.

One space permitted to be 16 ft. wide min., where two accessible spaces are adjacent to each other

50 percent of  spaces permitted to be 16 ft. wide min., where spaces also designed for tent  camping

 

1:50 slope or 1:33 slope where necessary for drainage

If the project included work on general use parking areas in campgrounds with recreational camping vehicle and trailer spaces, fill-in the information requested below.

In campgrounds with recreational camping vehicle and trailer spaces, the proposed accessibility guidelines require each general use parking area to provide at least one accessible parking space for recreational camping vehicles and trailers.
Do the general use parking areas where work was performed as part of the project provide at least one accessible parking space for recreational camping vehicles and trailers? Yes ____ No ____

If accessible recreational camping vehicle and trailer parking spaces were provided in general use parking areas as part of the project and any technical provisions in the proposed accessibility guidelines summarized below were not met, check the technical provisions that were not met.

Check (√) Technical Provisions Not Met

 

Parking spaces 12 ft. wide min.

 

Access aisle 8 ft. wide min. extending full length of parking space

 

Firm and stable surface at parking space and access aisle

 

1:50 slope or 1:33 slope where necessary for drainage at parking space and access aisle

If parking spaces were provided adjacent to tent camping and camp shelter spaces as part of the project, fill-in the information requested below.

Are accessible parking spaces provided adjacent to accessible tent camping and camp shelter spaces that were provided as part of the project? Yes ____ No ____

If accessible parking spaces were provided adjacent to accessible tent camping and camp shelter spaces as part of the project and any technical provisions in the proposed accessibility guidelines summarized below were not met, check the technical provisions that were not met.

Check (√) Technical Provisions Not Met

 

Parking spaces 16 ft. wide min.

 

1:50 slope or 1:33 slope where necessary for drainage

 


Part 5 – Outdoor Recreation Access Routes

If a new camping or picnic area was constructed as part of the project, fill-in the information requested below.

Where a new camping or picnic area is constructed, the proposed accessibility guidelines require outdoor recreation access routes to be provided. Outdoor recreation access routes must coincide with or be located in the same general area as the general circulation path.

In a picnic area, outdoor recreation access routes must connect at least 40 percent of the accessible picnic tables, fire rings, pedestal grills, and benches in the area; and all the other accessible elements and spaces in the area.

In a camping area, outdoor recreation access routes must connect all the accessible elements and spaces in the area.

Were outdoor recreation access routes provided to connect the accessible elements and spaces that are required to be connected by the proposed accessibility guidelines? Yes ____ No ____

If the ground surface in an existing camping or picnic area was altered, fill-in the information requested below.

Where the ground surface in an existing camping or picnic area is altered, the proposed accessibility guidelines require outdoor recreation access routes to be provided in the locations where the ground surface is altered. Outdoor recreation access routes must coincide with or be located in the same general area as the general circulation path.

In a picnic area, the outdoor recreation access routes must connect all the accessible picnic tables, fire rings, pedestal grills, and benches in the locations where the ground surface is altered until at least 40 percent of these elements are connected; and all the other accessible elements and spaces in the locations where the ground surface is altered.

In a camping area, outdoor recreation access routes must connect all the accessible elements and spaces in the locations where the ground surface is altered.

In the locations where the ground surface was altered, were outdoor recreation access routes provided to connect the accessible elements and spaces that are required to be connected by the proposed accessibility guidelines?
Yes ____ No ____

 

If outdoor recreation access routes were provided as part of the project and any technical provisions in the proposed accessibility guidelines summarized below were not met, check the technical provisions that were not met.

Check (√) Technical Provisions Not Met

 

Firm and stable surface

 

Clear tread width 36 in. min.

 

Clear width not reduced by protruding objects

 

Openings not permit passage of ½ in. diameter sphere

Elongated openings perpendicular or diagonal to dominant direction of travel

Elongated openings parallel to dominant direction of travel permitted if opening does not permit passage of ¼ in. diameter sphere

 

Tread obstacles not exceed 1 in. max.

 

Passing space provided at 200 ft. intervals where clear tread width less than 60 in.

 

Cross slope not exceed 1:33 or 1:20 where necessary for drainage

 

Running slope:

1:20 or less for any distance

1:12 max. for 50 ft. max.

1:10 max. for 30 ft. max.

 

Resting intervals 60 in. long min. and as wide as segment leading to resting interval provided where running slope exceeds 1:20  at distances no greater than:

50 ft. apart where running slope is 1:12 max.

30 ft. apart where running slope is 1:10 max.

Resting interval slope not exceed 1:33 in all directions (1: 20 cross slope permitted where necessary for drainage)

 

Where edge protection provided, edge 3 in. high min.

Exceptions are permitted where compliance with certain technical provisions would:
(1) Cause substantial harm to cultural, historic, religious, or significant natural features or characteristics;
(2) Substantially alter the nature of setting or the purpose of the facility;
(3) Require construction methods or materials prohibited by federal, state or local law; or
(4) Not be feasible due to terrain or prevailing construction practices.
Do any of these conditions apply to the project? Yes __ (Condition #: ___) No ___

What is the cost per square foot for providing outdoor recreation access routes within the camping or picnic area?

What is the cost per square foot for providing paths within the picnic or camping area without regard to the technical provisions in the proposed accessibility guidelines for outdoor recreation access routes?

 


APPENDIX B: CAMPING AND PICNIC AREA PROJECTS DATA SUMMARY

Department of Agriculture

Forest Service
1. Gallatin National Forest, Campground
2. San Juan National Forest, Paradise Horse Campground
3. Santa Fe National Forest, Paliza Campground
4. Wasatch-Cache National Forest, East Marsh Campground
5. Payette National Forest, Sheep Rock Picnic Area
6. Los Padres National Forest, Arroyo Seco Family Campground and
Live Oak Day Use Area
7. Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest, Middle Fork Campground
8. Apalachicola National Forest, Carmel Lake Recreation Area, Camping Area,
and Silver Lake Recreation Area, Picnic Area
9. George Washington and Jefferson National Forests, Cane Patch Campground
10. Sam Houston National Forest, Cagle Recreation Area, Campground
11. Shawnee National Forest, Pounds Hollow Picnic and Day Use Area
12. Chugach National Forest, Quartz Creek Campground and
Quartz Creek Picnic Area

Department of Interior

National Park Service
13. Glacier National Park, Park Wide Campgrounds
14. Voyagers National Park, Jenos Campground
15. Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Kulaniokaiki Campground
16. Pinnacles National Monument, Picnic Area
17. Gulf Islands National Seashore, Fort Pickens Campground
18. Gulf Islands National Seashore, Davis Bayou Campground
19. Manassas National Battlefield Park, Brownsville Picnic Area
20. Valley Forge National Park, Picnic Area
21. Acadia National Park, Blackwoods Campground

Fish and Wildlife Service
22. Willapa National Wildlife Refuge, Long Island, Camping Area
23. Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Rainbow Lake, Camping Area

Bureau of Land Management
24. Sand Flats Recreation Area, Juniper Campground
25. Storm King Trailhead, Picnic Area
26. Sourdough Creek Campground
27. Parker Strip Area, Bullfrog Day Use Area
28. Egin Lake Recreation Area, Campground and Day Use Area
29. Pit River Recreation Area, Campground and Day Use Area


Bureau of Reclamation
30. Emigrant Lake Recreation Area, Picnic Area
31. Northshore Park, Picnic Area
32. Salton Sea State Recreation Area, Picnic Area
33. Rifle Gap State Park, Cottonwood Campground and Picnic Area
34. Lake Berryessa, Oak Shores Day Use Park
35. Keyhole State Park, Arch Rock Area, Campground
36. Keyhole State Park, Pronghorn Area, Campground
37. Keyhole State Park, Homestead Area, Campground

Department of Defense

Army Corps of Engineers
38. Black Warrior and Tombigbee Lakes, Foscue Creek Park, Campground
39. Greers Ferry Lake, Dam Site Park, Campground
40. Truman Lake, Bucksaw Park, Campground
41. Truman Lake, Bucksaw Park, Picnic Area
42. Raystown Lake, Seven Points Recreation Area, Valley Camp Loop
43. Berlin Lake, Mill Creek Recreation Area, Maplewood Camping
Area

 

 

1.  Forest  Service Camping Area Project

Camping Area:   Campground

Forest Service Region:  1

Forest:  Gallatin National Forest

State:  Montana

Website:  www.fs.fed.us/r1/gallatin/

Acres:  1.8 million

Alteration

Urban Areas Served: 

Camping Units:  30

Annual Visits:  3 million

Accessible Units Before Project:  0

Terrain:  Rural, mountainous

Accessible Units After Project:  2 RV, 3 Tent

Native Surface Firm & Stable:  Varies

Total Project Cost :  $87,000

Work Covered By Guidelines:

Picnic tables, fire rings, water hydrants, tent pads and platforms, living area pads, outdoor recreation access route

                                   

Work Not Covered By Guidelines:=

Camping & Picnic Elements Provided By Project

 

 

Element

 

 

Manufacturer

Accessible

Non-Accessible

Number

Provided

Unit

Cost

Guidelines

Require

Number

Provided

Unit

Cost

Picnic Tables  8 Ft.

 

30

$1100

3

0

 

Fire Rings

 

35

$300

3

0

 

Water Hydrants

 

5

$1200

5

0

 

Camping Spaces Provided By Project

Camping Units With Parking Spurs

Tent Camping Spaces

20 Ft. Wide Spaces:  2

16 Ft. Wide Spaces:  33

Guidelines Require: 

3 RV (20 Ft.) or 2 RV (20 Ft.) and 1 Tent (16 Ft.)

Accessible:  3 Tent Pads

Non-Accessible:  2 Tent Pads

Guidelines Require: 

3 Accessible Tent Pads or Tent Platforms

Project Involved Work On Ground Surfaces: Yes

 

Surface

Number

Worked On

Square

Feet

 

Materials

Cost Per

Square Ft.

Living Area Pads

35

345

 

$3.50

Tent Pads/Platforms

5

 

 

 

RV Spaces

 

 

 

 

Project Involved Work On Circulation Paths:  Yes

Outdoor Recreation Access Route Provided:  Yes

Outdoor Recreation Access Route Length & Width:

Surface Materials:  Concrete, compacted gravel

Cost Per Square Foot:

Additional Information Provided:  Accessible picnic tables are locally built and cost includes delivery.  Accessible fire ring costs are contracted prices and cost $120 more.  Accessible water hydrant faucets with automatic shut-off cost $700 more.  Accessible living area pads cost $150 more for native surfaces and $800 more for imported surfaces.  Accessible tent platforms cost $1350 more.

 


 

2.  Forest  Service Camping Area Project

Camping Area:  Paradise Horse Campground

Forest Service Region:  2

Forest:  San Juan National Forest

State:  Colorado

Website:  www.fs.fed.us/r2/sanjuan/

Acres:  1.8 million

Alteration

Urban Areas Served: 

Camping Units:  12

Annual Visits:  1.9 million

Accessible Units Before Project:  0

Terrain: Rural, high desert mesa and mountains

Accessible Units After Project:  12 RV, 12 Tent

Native Surface Firm & Stable:  Yes

Total Project Cost :  $1,034,700

Work Covered By Guidelines:

Picnic tables, fire rings, parking spurs, living area and tent pads, outdoor recreation access route

 

Cost of Work Covered By Guidelines: 

$213,732

Work Not Covered By Guidelines:

Replaced flush toilets, rehabilitated water system

Camping & Picnic Elements Provided By Project

 

 

Element

 

 

Manufacturer

Accessible

Non-Accessible

Number

Provided

Unit

Cost

Guidelines

Require

Number

Provided

Unit

Cost

Picnic Tables  8 Ft.

R.J. Thomas

16

$528

2

0

 

Fire Rings

R.J. Thomas

12

$182

2

0

 

Camping Spaces Provided By Project

Camping Units With Parking Spurs

Tent Camping Spaces

36 Ft. Wide Spaces:  4 (Double Spurs)

20 Ft. Wide Spaces:  8

Guidelines Require:

2 RV (20 Ft.) or 1 Double Spur (36 Ft.)

Accessible:  12 Tent Pads

Non-Accessible:  0

Guidelines Require: 

2  Accessible Tent Pads

Project Involved Work On Ground Surfaces: Yes

 

Surface

Number

Worked On

Square

Feet

 

Materials

Cost Per

Square Ft.

Living Area & Tent Pads Combined

 

12

 

960

 

Compacted Aggregate

 

$1.00

RV Spaces

12

 

 

 

Project Involved Work on Circulation Paths:  Yes

Outdoor Recreation Access Route Provided:  Yes

Outdoor Recreation Access Route Length & Width:

Surface Materials: 

Cost Per Square Foot:

Additional Information Provided:  Accessible fire rings cost $56 more.  Most of additional costs associated with accessibility attributed to achieving acceptable grades. 

 


 

3.  Forest  Service Camping Area Project

Camping Area:  Paliza Campground

Forest Service Region:  3

Forest:  Santa Fe National Forest

State:  New Mexico

Website:  www.fs.fed.us/r3/sfe/

Acres:  1.6 million

Alteration

Urban Areas Served: 

Camping Units:  31

Annual Visits:  11 million

Accessible Units Before Project:  0

Terrain:  Rural, mountainous

Accessible Units After Project:  3 RV, 8 Tent

Native Surface Firm & Stable:  No

Total Project Cost :  $157,250

Work Covered By Guidelines:

Picnic tables, fire rings, pedestal grills, trash containers, bench, parking spurs, tent pads, outdoor recreation access route

Work Not Covered By Guidelines:

Camping & Picnic Elements Provided By Project

 

 

Element

 

 

Manufacturer

Accessible

Non-Accessible

Number

Provided

Unit

Cost

Guidelines

Require

Number

Provided

Unit

Cost

Picnic Tables  8 Ft.

Custom made

40

$1000

3

0

 

Fire Rings

R.J. Thomas

31

$400

3

0

 

Pedestal Grills

R.J. Thomas

29

$300

3

0

 

Trash Containers

McClintock

4

$3000

4

0

 

Benches

Custom made

1

$1600

1

0

 

Camping Spaces Provided By Project

Camping Units With Parking Spurs

Tent Camping Spaces

20 Ft. Wide Spaces:  3

16 Ft. Wide Spaces:  7

Guidelines Require: 

3 RV (20 Ft.) or 2 RV (20 Ft.) and 1 Tent (16 Ft.)

Accessible:  8 Tent Pads

Non-Accessible:  4 Tent Pads

Guidelines Require: 

3 Accessible Tent Pads

Project Involved Work On Ground Surfaces: Yes

 

Surface

Number

Worked On

Square

Feet

 

Materials

Cost Per

Square Ft.

Living Area Pads

 

 

Edged Crusher Fines

 

Tent Pads

12

 

Stabilized Crusher Fines

 

RV Spaces

10

 

Asphalt

 

Project Involved Work On Circulation Paths:  Yes

Outdoor Recreation Access Route Provided:  Yes

Outdoor Recreation Access Route Length & Width:

Surface Materials:  Edged Crusher Fines

Cost Per Square Foot:

Additional Information Provided:  Accessible picnic tables cost $4 more.  Accessible fire rings cost $30 more.  Accessible trash containers cost $30 more.  Used 4,250 square yards of edged crusher fines for living area pads, tent pads, and outdoor recreation access route at a unit cost of $10 per square yard.  Used 4,200 square feet of asphalt for parking spurs at a unit cost of $15 per square yard.  Parking spurs include 3 accessible double spurs.  Accessible single parking spurs cost $80 more, and accessible double parking spurs cost $250 more.  Tent pads cost $500.  Accessible tent pads cost $545 more. 

 


 

4.  Forest  Service Camping Area Project

Camping Area:  East Marsh Campground

Forest Service Region:  4

Forest:  Wasatch-Cache National Forest

State:  Utah

Website:  www.fs.fed.us/r4/wcnf/

Acres:  1.2 million

Alteration

Urban Areas Served:  Salt Lake City

Camping Units:  46

Annual Visits:  4.9 million

Accessible Units Before Project:  0

Terrain:  Urban, mountainous

Accessible Units After Project:  10 RV, 38 Tent

Native Surface Firm & Stable:  Yes

Total Project Cost :  $378,000

Work Covered By Guidelines:

Picnic tables, fire rings, parking spurs, tent pads, living area pads, outdoor recreation access route

 

Work Not Covered By Guidelines:

Camping & Picnic Elements Provided By Project

 

 

Element

 

 

Manufacturer

Accessible

Non-Accessible

Number

Provided

Unit

Cost

Guidelines

Require

Number

Provided

Unit

Cost

Picnic Tables  8 Ft.

R.J. Thomas

46

$800

3

0

 

Fire Rings

R.J. Thomas

46

$600

3

0

 

Camping Spaces Provided By Project

Camping Units With Parking Spurs

Tent Camping Spaces

20 Ft. Wide Spaces:  10

16 Ft. Wide Spaces:  36

Guidelines Require: 

3 RV (20 Ft.) or 2 RV (20 Ft.) and 1 Tent (16 Ft.)

Accessible:  38 Tent Pads

Non-Accessible:  8 Tent Pads

Guidelines Require: 

3 Accessible Tent Pads

Project Involved Work On Ground Surfaces: Yes

 

Surface

Number

Worked On

Square

Feet

 

Materials

Cost Per

Square Ft.

Living Area Pads

46

 

Compacted Gravel

$2.50

Tent Pads

46

144

Compacted Gravel

$2.50

RV Spaces

46

 

 

 

Project Involved Work On Circulation Paths:  Yes

Outdoor Recreation Access Route Provided:  Yes

Outdoor Recreation Access Route Length & Width:

Surface Materials: 

Cost Per Square Foot:

Additional Information Provided:  Picnic table and fire ring costs are contracted prices and include excavation, installation, and grading.  Accessible fire rings cost $300 more.  Estimated $2.50 per square foot for firm and stable surfaces includes mobilization, grubbing, grading, and compacted gravel.  Outdoor recreation access routes provided as part of roadway construction contract.

 


 

5.  Forest  Service Picnic Area Project

Picnic Area:  Sheep Rock Picnic Area

Forest Service Region:  4

Forest:  Payette National Forest

State:  Idaho

Website:  www.fs.fed.us/r4/payette/

Acres:  2.3 million

New Construction

Urban Areas Served: 

Picnic Units:  3

Annual Visits:  616,000

Accessible Units:  3

Terrain:  Rural, mountainous

Native Surface Firm & Stable:  Yes

Total Project Cost :  $135,000

Work Covered By Guidelines:

Picnic tables

 

Cost of Work Covered By Guidelines: 

$1,800

Work Not Covered By Guidelines:

Camping & Picnic Elements Provided By Project

 

 

Element

 

 

Manufacturer

Accessible

Non-Accessible

Number

Provided

Unit

Cost

Guidelines

Require

Number

Provided

Unit

Cost

Picnic Tables  8 Ft.

R.J. Thomas

3

$600

2

0

 

Project Involved Work On Ground Surfaces: Yes

 

Surface

Number

Worked On

Square

Feet

 

Materials

Cost Per

Square Ft.

Day Use Pads

3

400

Soil Stabilizer

 

Project Involved Work On Circulation Paths:  Yes

Outdoor Recreation Access Route Provided:  Yes

Outdoor Recreation Access Route Length & Width:

Surface Materials: 

Cost Per Square Foot:  $2 approximately

Additional Information Provided:  Picnic table costs are contracted prices.  Site preparation, including mobilization, clearing, grubbing, grading, and soil stabilizer estimated to cost $1,500.

 


 

6.  Forest  Service Camping & Picnic Areas Project

Camping Area:  Arroyo Seco Family Campground

Picnic Area:  Live Oak Day Use Area

Forest Service Region:  5

Forest:  Los Padres National Forest

State:  California

Website:  www.fs.fed.us/r5/lospadres/

Acres:  2 million

Alteration

Urban Areas Served:  Los Angeles

Camping Units:  33

Picnic Units:  170 Person Capacity

Annual Visits:  1.5 million

Accessible Camping Units Before Project:  4

Accessible Camping Units After Project:  33 Tent

Terrain:  Urban, mountainous

Accessible Picnic Units Before Project:  0

Accessible Picnic Units After Project:  170 Person Capacity

Native Surface Firm & Stable:  Varies

Total Project Cost :  $101,680

Work Covered By Guidelines:

Picnic tables, fire rings, pedestal grills, recycling containers, water hydrants, bench, day use pads, tent pads, outdoor recreation access route

 

Work Not Covered By Guidelines:

Camping & Picnic Elements Provided By Project

 

 

Element

 

 

Manufacturer

Accessible

Non-Accessible

Number

Provided

Unit

Cost

Guidelines

Require

Number

Provided

Unit

Cost

Picnic Tables  8 Ft.

Wood

Concrete

 

Belson (Frame)

 

20

80

 

$550

$900

 

3 Camp

50% Picnic

 

0

0

 

Fire Rings

 

20

 

Same

0

 

Pedestal Grills

Belson

100

$278

Same

0

 

Recycling Containers

 

7

$850

7

0

 

Water Hydrants

 

5

$1200

5

0

$850

Benches

Sitecraft

1

$750

1

0

 

Camping Spaces Provided By Project

Tent Camping Spaces

Accessible:  29 Tent Pads

Non-Accessible:  0

Guidelines Require: 

3 Accessible Tent Pads

Project Involved Work On Ground Surfaces: Yes

 

Surface

Number

Worked On

Square

Feet

 

Materials

Cost Per

Square Ft.

Day Use Pads

20

 

Decomposed Granite

$4.60

Tent Pads

29

 

 

 

Project Involved Work On Circulation Paths:  Yes

Outdoor Recreation Access Route Provided:  Yes

Outdoor Recreation Access Route Length & Width:

Surface Materials:  Decomposed Granite

Cost Per Square Foot:  $4.60

Additional Information Provided:  Twenty parking spurs improved.  No RV hook-ups.  Used 10,784 square feet of decomposed granite.  Accessible day use pads cost $1.20 per square foot more.  Base material at $28 per ton would have been added to non-accessible surfaces, and actual costs of accessible and non-accessible surfaces would have been similar.  Outdoor recreation access routes cost $1.75 per square foot more.

 


 

7.  Forest  Service Camping Area Project

Camping Area:  Middle Fork Campground

Forest Service Region:  6

Forest:  Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest

State:  Washington

Website:  www.fs.fed.us/r6/mbs/

Acres:  1.75 million

New Construction

Urban Areas Served:  Seattle, Vancouver

Camping Units:  45

Annual Visits:  5.2 million

Accessible Units:  5 RV, 45 Tent

Terrain:  Urban, mountainous

Native Surface Firm & Stable:  No

Total Project Cost :  $850,000

Work Covered By Guidelines:

Picnic tables, fire rings, pedestal grills, parking spurs, living area pads, tent pads, outdoor recreation access route

 

Cost of Work Covered By Guidelines: 

$247,750

Work Not Covered By Guidelines:

Camping & Picnic Elements Provided By Project

 

 

Element

 

 

Manufacturer

Accessible

Non-Accessible

Number

Provided

Unit

Cost

Guidelines

Require

Number

Provided

Unit

Cost

Picnic Tables  8 Ft.

Perma -Port

50

$1000

3

0

$800

Fire Rings

Playscapes

45

$300

3

0

$250

Pedestal Grills

Playscapes

45

$500

3

0

$400

Camping Spaces Provided By Project

Camping Units With Parking Spurs

Tent Camping Spaces

20 Ft. Wide Spaces:  5

16 Ft. Wide Spaces:  40

Guidelines Require: 

3 RV (20 Ft.) or 2 RV (20 Ft.) and 1 Tent (16 Ft.)

Accessible:  45 Tent Pads (9 Raised)

Non-Accessible:  0

Guidelines Require: 

3 Accessible Tent Pads

Project Involved Work On Ground Surfaces: Yes

 

Surface

Number

Worked On

Square

Feet

 

Materials

Cost Per

Square Ft.

Living Area Pads

45

 

Crushed Compacted Aggregate

$.58

Tent Pads

45

 

Crushed Compacted Aggregate

$.58

RV Spaces

45

 

 

 

Project Involved Work On Circulation Paths:  Yes

Outdoor Recreation Access Route Provided:  Yes

Outdoor Recreation Access Route Length & Width:

Surface Materials: 

Cost Per Square Foot:  $3.81

Additional Information Provided:  Forest lists manufacturer and model for camping and picnic elements, and contractor may substitute other sources that match listed model.  Imported 170,100 square feet of common fill at $.50 per square foot to place for leveling site, and 104,004 square feet of crushed aggregate at $.58 to place, spread, and compact for firm and stable surface.  Accessible living area pads and parking spurs cost $300 more per unit compared to crushed rock surface.  Raised tent pads cost $150 more.

 


 

8.  Forest  Service Camping & Picnic Areas Project

Camping Area:  Camel Lake Recreation Area

Picnic Area:  Silver Lake Recreation Area

Forest Service Region:  8

Forest:  Apalachicola National Forest

State:  Florida

Website:  www.fs.fed.us/r8/florida/

Acres:  564,000

Alteration

Urban Areas Served: 

Camping Units:  10

Picnic Units:  60

Annual Visits:  500,000

Accessible Camping Units Before Project:  0

Accessible Camping Units After Project:  10

Terrain:  Rural, lowland, swampy

Accessible Picnic Units Before Project:  0

Accessible Picnic Units After Project:  60

Native Surface Firm & Stable:  No

Total Project Cost :  $122,187

Work Covered By Guidelines:

Picnic tables, fire rings, trash containers, benches, outdoor recreation access route

 

Work Not Covered By Guidelines:

Day use area parking area

Camping & Picnic Elements Provided By Project

 

 

Element

 

 

Manufacturer

Accessible

Non-Accessible

Number

Provided

Unit

Cost

Guidelines

Require

Number

Provided

Unit

Cost

Picnic Tables  8 Ft.

R.J. Thomas

60

$209

32

0

$178

Fire Rings

R.J. Thomas

60

$187

32

0

$106

Trash Containers

McClintock

30

$818

30

0

$818

Benches

Ultra Play Systems

20

$171

10

0

$171

Project Involved Work On Ground Surfaces: Yes

 

Surface

Number

Worked On

Square

Feet

 

Materials

Cost Per

Square Ft.

Living Area/Use Pads

 

 

Hardened Sand

 

Project Involved Work On Circulation Paths:  Yes

Outdoor Recreation Access Route Provided:  Yes

Outdoor Recreation Access Route Length & Width:

Surface Materials:  Concrete

Cost Per Square Foot:  $5

Additional Information Provided:  Native surface is sand.  Added lime rock, asphalt, or concrete to increase stability so vehicles can drive and park on surface.  Accessible outdoor rinsing shower provided.

 


 

9.  Forest  Service Camping Area Project

Camping Area:  Cane Patch Campground

Forest Service Region:  8

Forest:  George Washington and Jefferson National Forests

State:  Virginia

Website:  www.fs.fed.us/r8/gwj/

Acres:  1.8 million

Alteration

Urban Areas Served:  Washington DC

Camping Units:  34

Annual Visits:  3 million

Accessible Units Before Project:  0

Terrain:  Rural, mountainous, rolling valleys

Accessible Units After Project:  1 RV, 2 Tent

Native Surface Firm & Stable:  No

Total Project Cost :  $61,696

Work Covered By Guidelines:

Picnic tables, fire rings, pedestal grills, parking spurs, tent pads, living area pads

 

Cost of Work Covered By Guidelines: 

$18,454

Work Not Covered By Guidelines:

Camping & Picnic Elements Provided By Project

 

 

Element

 

 

Manufacturer

Accessible

Non-Accessible

Number

Provided

Unit

Cost

Guidelines

Require

Number

Provided

Unit

Cost

Picnic Tables  8 Ft.

R.J. Thomas

11

$177

3

0

$149

Fire Rings

R.J. Thomas

20

$127

3

0

 

Pedestal Grills

R.J. Thomas

20

$122

3

0

$117

Camping Spaces Provided By Project

Camping Units With Parking Spurs

Tent Camping Spaces

20 Ft. Wide Spaces:  1

16 Ft. Wide Spaces:  9

Guidelines Require: 

3 RV (20 Ft.) or 2 RV (20 Ft.) and 1 Tent (16 Ft.)

Accessible:  2 Tent Pads

Non-Accessible:  7 Tent Pads

Guidelines Require: 

3 Accessible Tent Pads

Project Involved Work On Ground Surfaces: Yes

 

Surface

Number

Worked On

Square

Feet

 

Materials

Cost Per

Square Ft.

Living Area Pads

1

 

 

 

Tent Pads

9

 

 

 

RV Space

10

512

Concrete

$4.25

Project Involved Work On Circulation Paths:  No

Additional Information Provided:  Shipping costs were $518 for the picnic tables, and $1,024 for the other elements.  Accessible parking spur (20 feet wide) costs $535 more.  Outdoor recreation access route will be provided next phase.

 


 

10.  Forest   Service Camping Area Project

Camping Area:  Cagle Recreation Area

Forest Service Region:  8

Forest:  Sam Houston National Forest

State:  Texas

Website:  www.fs.fed.us/r8/texas/ 

Acres:  163,000

Alteration

Areas Served:  Dallas � Ft. Worth

Camping Units:  47

Annual Visits: 

Accessible Units Before Project:  11

Terrain:  Rural, rolling plains and woodlands

Accessible Units After Project:  5 RV, 8 Tent

Native Surface Firm & Stable:  Varies

Total Project Cost :  $526,661

Work Covered By Guidelines:

Picnic tables, fire rings, parking spurs, tent pads, living area pads

 

Cost of Work Covered By Guidelines: 

$236,752

Work Not Covered By Guidelines:

Camping & Picnic Elements Provided By Project

 

 

Element

 

 

Manufacturer

Accessible

Non-Accessible

Number

Provided

Unit

Cost

Guidelines

Require

Number

Provided

Unit

Cost

Picnic Tables  8 Ft.

Gulf Coast Trade

46