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Agency for Healthcare Research Quality

Health Promotion/Disease Prevention

Preventive Services Resources

Putting Prevention Into Practice Slide Presentations:
   90 to 120-minute course
   60-minute course
Implementing U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations into Health Professions Education
Understanding the Methods Used by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force in Developing Recommendations
   Small group materials to accompany the PowerPoint® presentation: Instructor guide
   Small group materials to accompany the PowerPoint® presentation: Student guide
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)
Put Prevention Into Practice
Stroke Prevention: Recommendations
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force: An Evidence-based Prevention Resource for Nurse Practitioners Exit Disclaimer
What You Should Know About Stroke Prevention

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Research Findings

Agency Press Releases
Date   Title
10/27/11 AHRQ Awards $4.5 Million To Create Clinical Preventive Services Research Centers

News and Numbers
Date   Title
11/9/11 More Seniors Getting Pneumonia Shots, But Some Lag Behind

Research Activities, October 2012:
Sending health maintenance reminders to personal health records helps patients adhere to some screenings
Effectiveness of active surveillance for men with localized prostate cancer is unclear
Behavioral counseling is an effective treatment for alcohol misuse
Insulin pump and glucose monitoring improve blood-sugar control for patients with type 1 diabetes
Extending use of anti-clotting medication following major orthopedic surgery may help prevent post-operative blood clots
AHRQ safety project reduces bloodstream infections by 40 percent
AHRQ reviews evidence on multigene panels for prostate cancer risk assessment

Research Activities, September 2012:
About three-fourths of patients in the United States estimated to remain in HIV care
Radionovela promotes awareness and knowledge of cervical cancer vaccine among Hispanic parents

Research Activities, August 2012:
Medicare managed care reduced preventable hospitalizations in 2004 more than fee-for-service Medicare
Screening based on risk factors and birth year boosts screening rates for hepatitis C

Research Activities, July 2012:
Women in jail are at increased risk of cervical cancer
Having a usual source of care promotes preventive health counseling for children
Study results argue against decisions about screening colonoscopy based on age alone
Key treatments for high blood pressure and high blood lipids do not reduce elderly patients' risk of limited mobility
Primary care practices can boost clinical preventive services with electronic health records and quality improvement support
Tool assesses the readiness of black churches to engage in health disparities research

Research Activities, June 2012:
Contact isolation of new patients reduces adherence to process-of-care quality measures for pneumonia
Risk of venous thromboembolism low for young trauma patients without a central venous catheter Effectiveness of noninvasive diagnostic tests for breast abnormalities depends on woman's history
Patients recovering from stroke tend to continue using secondary preventive medications
Inmates remain at risk for HIV and HCV after release from prison

Research Activities, May 2012:
Extended use of medications to prevent blood clots may benefit patients after major orthopedic surgery
Medications for low bone density prevent fractures in women with osteoporosis
Trauma centers vary in screening for deep vein thrombosis
Older, busier clinicians who see complex patients are more likely to use novel electronic health record (EHR) functions
Modeling inequalities helps to develop cervical cancer screening strategies that can improve outcomes and reduce disparities
Annual screening for malignancy among children with spina bifida with cystoplasty unlikely to be cost effective

Research Activities, April 2012:
Primary care visits every 2 weeks linked to better treatment outcomes for patients with diabetes
Self-measured blood pressure monitoring to manage hypertension may offer a small benefit
Improving quality of care for falls and urinary incontinence also improves quality of life in elderly patients
Lower flu vaccination rates for black nursing home residents a cause for concern

Research Activities, March 2012:
Hawaii's experience shows that a national collaborative effort can reduce central line-associated bloodstream infections
Guideline management of inpatient cellulitis and cutaneous abscess reduces antibiotic use
Routinely collecting clinical data can improve pneumococcal vaccination of rheumatology patients on immunosuppressant drugs
Watching patient stories on DVDs improves blood pressure control among blacks
Preventing pressure ulcers in the home requires creative solutions by nurses

Research Activities, February 2012:
Evidence lacking on devices used with percutaneous coronary interventions
Superficial surgical site infections are a reliable measure of hospital quality
Physicians need better understanding of factors that patients use to decide about colorectal cancer screening
Children of working mothers face more health problems
Lack of folic acid supplementation for nonpregnant women means missed opportunities to prevent neural tube defects in children

Research Activities, January 2012:
Accessible services in primary care practices promote preventive health screenings and care
Bundled payments for heart failure disease management programs can save money while reducing readmissions
Interdisciplinary team training with in-situ simulation helps reduce adverse events in obstetric patients
Medical residents can use quality improvement methods to promote obesity screening
Leg compression devices are not a significant factor in in-hospital falls
More seniors getting pneumonia shots, but some lag behind
Potential role of physical therapy in ICU patients
Screening and treatment of subclinical thyroid dysfunction inadequately studied

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Research Activities, December 2011:
Human factors challenges in home health care
Three Publications Highlight Human Factors Research
Pediatric care providers identify desired characteristics for computerized flu vaccination alerts
Evidence-based strategies substantially reduce the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in ICUs
Fewer than 1 in 5 emergency departments implement recommendations for HIV screening
Patients with myelodysplastic syndrome have shorter survival times if they have coexisting medical conditions
Deaf patients who use American Sign Language receive more preventive care if their clinician also uses sign language
Similarly effective international guidelines for managing cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes vary in costs

Research Activities, November 2011:
Fecal occult blood tests and followup need to be better targeted to healthy older adults
Updated report highlights hospitals' progress in reducing bloodstream infections

Research Activities, October 2011:
Possible blood biomarkers for poorer asthma control identified
Women on Medicare with poor chances of living 4 more years often forego screening mammograms
Nighttime-breathing treatments backed by strongest evidence among options to treat sleep apnea

Research Activities, September 2011:
The challenge of prioritizing care for complex patients
A standard enzyme assay may help screen for rickets in breast-fed infants not given vitamin D supplements
Arizona and Maryland see great drop in in-hospital deaths from pneumonia

Research Activities, August 2011:
AHRQ's clinical care tools help clinicians ensure better and safer care
Drugs to treat hepatitis B may not prevent patients from liver disease later
Having a usual source of care as well as insurance reduces unmet health needs
A usual source of care may be more important than insurance on children's receipt of preventive health counseling
When primary care providers apply fluoride varnish, young Medicaid-insured children have fewer cavities
New ad campaign urges patients to consider medical treatment options
Up to $500 million in Affordable Care Act funding will help health providers improve care

Research Activities, July 2011:
Health care quality gaps and disparities persist in every State
Many primary care patients are at risk for obstructive sleep apnea, but few are sent for testing
Empowerment approach to diabetes education works better than the traditional didactic approach
Preventive care for patients with lupus could be improved
Some patients hospitalized for stroke more likely to keep taking drugs to prevent another stroke
Mothers' medical appointments may be a link to getting daughters vaccinated for human papillomavirus
AHRQ, Ad Council launch Conozca las preguntas campaign

Research Activities, June 2011:
Community hubs ensure better care for the most vulnerable
"Piece-rate" performance incentives for physicians improve childhood immunization rates
Patients with sickle cell disease employ various strategies to control their pain

Research Activities, May 2011:
Patient Web portals improve diabetes care and outcomes
Diabetes testing plummets among poor, minority, and inner-city adults
Low health literacy linked to higher risk of death and more emergency room visits and hospitalizations

Research Activities, April 2011:
Blacks less likely than whites to use either statins or aspirin in the prevention of cardiovascular disease
Korean Americans with high blood pressure who are confident they can achieve blood pressure control are more likely to do so
Diet and medication adherence can reduce cardiovascular disease for patients with type 2 diabetes
Rates of pneumonia dramatically reduced in patients on ventilators in Michigan intensive care units

Research Activities, March 2011:
Better adherence to diabetes medications means fewer hospitalizations and emergency department visits
Colony-stimulating factor is effective in reducing infection for elderly patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma on chemotherapy
Children with a medical home more likely to receive health screenings and advice
Preventive dental care saves money on total dental care for Medicare beneficiaries
Routine osteoporosis screening recommended for all women over age 65

Research Activities, February 2011:
More than half of women do not get regular mammograms
Prenatal screening for Group B streptococci often fails to live up to current screening and treatment guidelines
Regular home blood pressure measurement raises the likelihood of blood pressure control among Korean Americans

Research Activities, January 2011:
Most acute-care hospitals follow national guidelines for the prevention and treatment of MRSA infections
Greater use of preventive measures needed for hospitalized patients with suspected venous thromboembolism
Rural counties experience funding and stigma problems in HIV prevention services

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Research Activities, December 2010:
AHRQ awards $34 million to expand fight against healthcare-associated infections
Surgical infection prevention measures reduce postoperative infections when used together, but not singly
Fever over 100°F following multiple infant vaccinations is rare
Antiretroviral switching strategies to treat HIV improve survival and are cost-effective in resource-limited countries
Risk factors for cognitive decline still murky
Men and blacks less likely to be aware of cancer screening benefits
Blacks have longer PSA screening intervals than whites
Telephone counseling helps Korean Americans who speak little English improve hypertension management
Older Americans getting pneumonia shots, but not enough

Research Activities, November 2010:
MRSA can spread slowly but surely in households
Colonoscopy is best at diagnosing lower intestinal bleeding
One-fifth of mothers do not receive recommended antenatal corticosteroids before delivery of premature infants
A simple test can help assess how accurately patients report colorectal cancer screening
Telephone counseling helps Korean Americans who speak little English improve hypertension management
Prostate cancer deaths drop, but blacks still most likely to die

Research Activities, October 2010:
Quality improvement initiative successful in sustaining reduction in bloodstream infections caused by catheters
Parents continue to weigh vaccine benefits with adverse effects when deciding to vaccinate their children
Pay-for-performance does not improve care quality in the short term in safety-net settings
Colorectal cancer screening is mostly underused, but problems with overuse and misuse remain
Delay in filling a blood-thinner prescription after procedures to implant a drug-eluting stent is risky
Laboratory tests can accurately detect two clotting-factor mutations that raise risk of blood clots
A new study links biomarker of brain injury to microemboli occurring during cardiac surgery
Decision support in the electronic record improves asthma care
How community pharmacies decide how and whether to provide immunization services

Research Activities, September 2010:
Physicians' use of "we" during patient visits does not necessarily foster patient-physician partnership
Iron and zinc co-supplementation seems to be most helpful for children in developing countries
Predicting cardiovascular risk in patients with metabolic syndrome depends on definition used for the syndrome
Study shows Guided Care benefits family caregivers, chronically ill older adults, and physicians, and may reduce costs
Early followup with a physician reduces readmissions for Medicare patients hospitalized for heart failure
New study finds rotator cuff injuries treatable, but evidence unclear whether surgery is preferable

Research Activities, August 2010:
Many homeless women are reluctant to get free Pap smears
Using quitlines with physician support improves smoking cessation
Thoracic surgeons can help patients stop smoking with a brief smoking cessation program
Challenges abundant for practices that use fax referrals to smoking cessation quitlines
AHRQ and Ad Council encourage men to take preventive steps in their health care
Men shy away from routine medical appointments

Research Activities, July 2010:
Extended use of antiviral drugs found to be safe and effective in preventing symptomatic influenza
Doctors remain remiss in advising overweight patients about healthy eating
Evidence inconclusive regarding prevention of Alzheimer's disease and cognitive decline

Research Activities, June 2010:
Doctors underprescribe warfarin to prevent strokes in patients with atrial fibrillation and heart failure
Early and intensive intervention for a flu pandemic is effective and cost-effective
More adults with diabetes are getting flu shots

Research Activities, May 2010:
While young women are knowledgeable about the HPV vaccine, many have yet to be vaccinated to prevent cervical cancer

Research Activities, April 2010:
To reduce hospital deaths, managing surgical complications may be as important as preventing them
The stability of a usual source of care is important to the care of low-income children
Rotavirus was culprit in one-fourth of children's diarrhea-related emergency department visits prior to vaccine
Many minority patients do not receive or complete colorectal cancer screening tests in urban, primary care settings

Research Activities, March 2010:
Wellness education and physical therapy improve health and functioning of persons with multiple sclerosis
Task force recommends screening children and adolescents for obesity
Colorectal cancer screening still underused

Research Activities, February 2010:
Demographic and health factors influence the type of prostate cancer screening received by men over age 40
Patients who are treated with empathy during office visits get over colds faster
Many patients with coronary artery disease who could benefit from cardiac rehabilitation are not referred for this treatment
Children with cerebral palsy who undergo gait assessment before surgery are less likely to need additional surgery later
Pneumonia vaccine has not increased dangerous methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in children
Rural residents depend on physician offices for their osteoporosis testing

Research Activities, January 2010:
U.S. spends nearly $1 billion on blood thinners for adults
Administration of antimicrobials just prior to surgery reduces the risk of surgical site infections
Two-thirds of people with diabetes miss some critically important exams to manage the disease

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Research Activities, December 2009:
Lifestyle changes are needed in addition to drugs to prevent heart attacks
High blood pressure control is often elusive for blacks and Mexican Americans, despite adherence to treatment and lifestyle changes
Vigorous physical activity may reduce risk of diverticulitis and diverticular bleeding among men
Laptop test in an emergency department can help detect subtle cognitive deficits following concussions
A substantial number of adults stockpiled drugs for the avian flu outbreak in 2005
Majority of primary care physicians now recommend colonoscopy
Primary care physicians do not always discuss the risks and benefits of prostate cancer screening with patients
Smoking is particularly hazardous for individuals with HIV infection
Observing patients swallowing one HIV drug on weekdays has little impact on drug adherence

Research Activities, November 2009:
Intervention leads to reduction in central venous catheter-associated blood stream infections for pediatric patients
Chronic disease self-management program improves illness management for up to 6 months, then effectiveness wanes
Task force finds insufficient evidence to screen for newborn jaundice to prevent a more serious chronic condition

Research Activities, October 2009:
Parent and provider partnerships hold promise for improving adolescent health
Cost and depression serve as barriers to performing self-care behaviors for people with diabetes
Self-management support results in better diabetes outcomes
Algorithm now available to prevent recurrent bone fractures in nursing home residents
Risk factors for harboring multiple strains of E. coli are elusive

Research Activities, September 2009:
Uninsured and partially insured patients with diabetes are less likely to be screened at Federally Qualified Health Centers
Community health workers can help poor and minority groups access some cancer screening services
Genetic factors are linked to symptoms in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Study examines outpatient use of medication and lifestyle counseling to manage osteoporosis
HIV screening is cost-effective in Russia

Research Activities, July 2009:
Using a chronic care model improves smoking cessation programs in primary care clinics
Elderly women still see lifelong cervical cancer screening as important

Research Activities, June 2009:
Perceptions about fruit and vegetable intake are influenced by individual and community factors
Minority children from disadvantaged families use more urgent care and less preventive care for their asthma
Task Force reaffirms recommendations for screening and counseling all adults and pregnant women for tobacco use

Research Activities, May 2009:
Task Force recommends screening adolescents for clinical depression

Research Activities, April 2009:
Task Force recommends using aspirin to prevent cardiovascular disease when the benefits outweigh the harms
More black than white women receive mammograms in St. Louis
Young women with diabetes do not receive recommended preventive services
Immigrants use fewer preventive services than U.S. natives Uninsured Americans with asthma are less likely to take daily preventive medicine

Research Activities, March 2009:
Strategies are needed to improve immunization rates among adolescents, especially those with high-risk conditions

Research Activities, February 2009:
Many older women prefer to have annual Pap tests
More intensive prostate cancer screening and treatment is not linked with fewer prostate cancer deaths
Neither family history nor perceived risk of prostate cancer affects men's screening or preventive behaviors
A multicomponent implementation strategy increases the use of care processes associated with higher rates of preventive services
Women and blacks are less likely to receive preventive care to prevent further strokes

Research Activities, January 2009:
Immunization of infants with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has wide preventive effects
Culturally appropriate interventions raise flu and pneumonia vaccine rates at inner-city health centers
Cost-effectiveness of pertussis vaccine in adults confirmed in U.S. and German studies

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