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Research Findings

Agency Press Releases
Date   Title
4/9/12 Muscle Training Effective in Treating Urinary Incontinence for Women

Research Activities, October 2012:
Survival rates for colon cancer patients on chemotherapy improve with addition of oxaliplatin
Certain antibiotics increase the risk of treatment failure in children with MRSA-related skin and soft-tissue infections
Behavioral counseling is an effective treatment for alcohol misuse
Evidence lacking on best approaches to treat autism in teens and young adults
Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation improves COPD patient outcomes
More research needed on coronary artery disease treatments for women
Insulin pump and glucose monitoring improve blood-sugar control for patients with type 1 diabetes
Best strategies to treat traumatic brain injury patients are unclear
Extending use of anti-clotting medication following major orthopedic surgery may help prevent post-operative blood clots
New research examines use of nitrous oxide for labor pain
Tactics to improve medication adherence in short-term shown effective
New effectiveness review discusses treatment options for inguinal hernia
More evidence needed on benefit of additional procedure for diagnosing plasma cell cancer

Research Activities, September 2012:
Response to etanercept for rheumatoid arthritis can be predicted by 12 weeks
Several factors influence completion of chemotherapy in elderly patients with stage-III colon cancer
Increased fluid and supplemental treatments may reduce recurrence of kidney stones

Research Activities, August 2012:
Newer antidepressants equally effective in treating major depressive disorder
JAMA special issue focuses on comparative effectiveness research

Research Activities, July 2012:
Experts seek better diagnosis and treatment for women's urinary incontinence and chronic pelvic pain
Urinary Incontinence—New Hope
Tumor necrosis factor-antagonists in patients with autoimmune diseases showed no overall increased risk of hospitalizations for serious infections than non-biologic drugs
Depressed patients with anxiety who fail initial antidepressant therapy may benefit from adding a second drug
Key treatments for high blood pressure and high blood lipids do not reduce elderly patients' risk of limited mobility
Web videonovela series helps Spanish-speaking patients compare treatments for diabetes
Limited evidence prevents firm conclusions on rheumatoid arthritis drug therapies
Consumer and clinician summaries now available on chronic pelvic pain treatment options

Research Activities, June 2012:
Infrequent physician use of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators presents potential risks to patient safety
Use of pulmonary artery catheters provides no patient benefit and increases costs
Supplemental phenylketonuria therapies may help some
Limited evidence prevents firm conclusions on psoriatic arthritis drug therapies
Glaucoma treatments can lower eye pressure
Several risk factors point to the use of high-risk medications in older veterans

Research Activities, May 2012:
Extended use of medications to prevent blood clots may benefit patients after major orthopedic surgery
Lower complications are seen after laparoscopic kidney removal
Dissemination and implementation of clinical trial results are needed to encourage recommended practices

Research Activities, April 2012:
Primary care visits every 2 weeks linked to better treatment outcomes for patients with diabetes
Injection of hyaluronic acid, a natural joint lubricant, appears effective in reducing pain from wear and tear on the knee
Market forces underlie provision of peritoneal dialysis by dialysis facilities
Blood pressure control persists after physician-pharmacist intervention ends

Research Activities, March 2012:
Study characterizes patients receiving out-of-hospital endotracheal intubation
Patients with hepatitis C virus infection who adhere to their drug regimen are more likely to show long-term benefit
Older patients with chronic conditions have greater risk of problems and death following bilateral knee replacement
Nine percent of adults with hypertension have resistant hypertension
Bone marrow transplant is beneficial for some rare pediatric conditions
Little evidence for benefit of interventions in the early stage of chronic kidney disease
Evidence lacking to support surgery for pelvic pain
Diagnosis and treatment rates for depression in older adults have grown over time, with medication edging out therapy

Research Activities, February 2012:
Newer antidepressants equally effective in treating major depressive disorder
Older medications for epilepsy obtain better control but have more adverse effects
Evidence lacking on devices used with percutaneous coronary interventions
Benefits of active surveillance therapy for localized prostate cancer not yet demonstrated
Depending on a woman's age, hysterectomy may be the best option for resolving chronic pelvic pain and heavy bleeding

Research Activities, January 2012:
Pediatric cardiology centers vary in treatment of infants with single ventricle congenital heart disease
Evidence is weak on whole-body vibration therapy for osteoporosis
Screening and treatment of subclinical thyroid dysfunction inadequately studied

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Research Activities, December 2011:
Most children receiving palliative care live for more than a year after beginning such treatment
Hospital lung cancer surgery volume is not correlated with lower mortality
Thin evidence on non-drug strategies for treatment-resistant depression
Evidence lacking on transition-of-care programs for heart attack and stroke patients after hospital discharge

Research Activities, November 2011:
Off-label use of atypical antipsychotics not supported by evidence for some conditions
Uncertainty surrounds use of terbutaline to prevent preterm birth

Research Activities, October 2011:
Minimally invasive heart treatments have reduced bypass surgeries and influenced valve repair and replacement
Full use of evidence-based therapies for heart failure could save nearly 70,000 lives each year
Nighttime-breathing treatments backed by strongest evidence among options to treat sleep apnea

Research Activities, September 2011:
Metformin just as effective as other medications for treating type 2 diabetes
Patients with sepsis fare better when admitted via the emergency department rather than directly to the hospital
Blacks who receive heart transplants have poorer survival than other racial groups

Research Activities, August 2011:
The likelihood of bacterial blood infections among patients with HIV has risen slightly in recent years
Caregivers for advanced cystic fibrosis patients want to discuss intensive treatments and symptom relief

Research Activities, July 2011:
Foreign-born patients are more likely to have a form of tuberculosis that resists a common drug used in treatment
Sleep apnea and pulmonary hypertension affect in-hospital outcomes of noncardiac surgery
Antibiotics are modestly more effective than no treatment for middle ear infections in children
Readmissions in 30 days or less account for 1 in 9 hospital admissions

Research Activities, June 2011:
Combination diuretic therapy for heart failure appears useful, but needs a stronger evidence base
Dilators more cost-effective than surgery for correcting congenital condition in females

Research Activities, May 2011:
Performing cardiac catheterization and heart surgery on different hospital admissions may reduce risk of kidney damage
Treatments show promise in reducing autism-related behaviors, but some have significant side effects

Research Activities, April 2011:
Medications differ in their effect on risk of foot ulcers and limb amputations in patients with diabetes

Research Activities, March 2011:
Hospitals with a high volume of sepsis admissions have lowest mortality rates
Bariatric surgery before pregnancy reduces the risk of gestational diabetes in obese women
Blacks have worse colorectal cancer survival rates than whites
HIV treatment costs much more when patients start treatment later in the disease
AHRQ's Health Care Innovations Exchange offers innovative solutions to caring for women with gestational diabetes

Research Activities, February 2011:
Research comparing diabetes medications helps patients and clinicians choose the right one
Routing ambulances to cardiac surgery-equipped hospitals more cost effective than building more such hospitals
Arterial and perfusion imaging help guide treatment for stroke patients when symptom onset is unknown
Higher in-hospital complication rate for primary posterior versus primary anterior cervical fusion

Research Activities, January 2011:
Patients taking only salmeterol seen in the emergency department for asthma more likely to be hospitalized

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Research Activities, December 2010:
Rescuer experience with out-of-hospital emergency intubation is often associated with improved patient survival
Brand-name drugs not better than generics for controlling epilepsy
Evidence report finds modest and short-term benefit of complementary and alternative therapy for back and neck pain

Research Activities, November 2010:
Clopidogrel increases bleeding risk in cardiac patients with drug-eluting stents
Higher risk of death or heart attack in first 90 days after cardiac patients stop taking clopidogrel
Heart-lung machine may be considered for certain patients with H1N1 influenza with acute respiratory failure
Human growth hormone shows promise in treating cystic fibrosis symptoms

Research Activities, October 2010:
Acamprosate safe and efficacious in treating alcohol dependence
Risks, benefits of emerging heart valve replacement technique not fully understood

Research Activities, September 2010:
Hydroxychloroquine still underused by patients with lupus, but use more likely if treated by rheumatologists
Evidence-based care processes are associated with improved outcomes for heart failure
Satisfaction after hysterectomy linked to quality of life improvements
Benefits of chemotherapy for elderly patients with lung cancer must be weighed against risk of long-term toxicities
New study finds rotator cuff injuries treatable, but evidence unclear whether surgery is preferable

Research Activities, August 2010:
Advanced type of cancer radiation reduces side effects, but impact on cancer control is unclear
Acupuncture helps with depression during pregnancy
Studies explore rapid treatment of sepsis and cardiac arrest
Coronary risk information may improve prescribing practices

Research Activities, July 2010:
New approach reduces microemboli responsible for neurologic injury following open-heart surgery
Implantable heart defibrillator is effective in reducing deaths among older heart failure patients
Extended use of antiviral drugs found to be safe and effective in preventing symptomatic influenza
Epilepsy drugs do not appear to increase suicide risk in patients with bipolar disorder
Elderly lung cancer patients experience more adverse events during chemotherapy than younger patients
Disparities widen in the use of asthma medications

Research Activities, June 2010:
Treatment without examination and lab tests appears effective for some women with vaginal symptoms
Patient tool helps determine adherence to asthma medication
Patients who undergo knee ligament reconstruction do better when the doctor or hospital perform it frequently
Early and intensive intervention for a flu pandemic is effective and cost-effective
Paramedics sometimes interrupt CPR to open airway
Study reveals high rates of rehospitalizations and emergency pain treatment for sickle cell disease

Research Activities, May 2010:
Atypical antipsychotic medications increase fracture risk in patients with Parkinson's disease
Combination treatment reduces acute kidney injury due to infusion of contrast dye during cardiac catheterization
Anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy increases risk for certain mycobacteria infections
Emergency department treatment of asthma with systemic corticosteroids is not always timely
Patients who take a proton-pump inhibitor with medicine to prevent blood clots are less likely to be hospitalized for bleeding ulcers

Research Activities, April 2010:
To reduce hospital deaths, managing surgical complications may be as important as preventing them
Types and rates of fungal infections vary among groups and treatment is often suboptimal
Certain factors can help prepare families to bring infants home from neonatal intensive care units
Primary care patients who see physician assistants and nurse practitioners are as complex as those who see doctors
Medication review technique may help identify drug-related problems in the elderly

Research Activities, March 2010:
Clinicians should be cautious when prescribing one class of diabetes drugs for patients at high risk for heart attack
Octogenarians fare well after aortic valve replacements

Research Activities, February 2010:
Nonphysicians can be trained to assess residents' competence in catheter insertion
Being overweight prior to transplant surgery slows improvement in the physical functioning of liver transplant patients
COPD drug triad associated with reduced death and hospitalization rates
Patients who are treated with empathy during office visits get over colds faster
Many patients with coronary artery disease who could benefit from cardiac rehabilitation are not referred for this treatment
Computerized tomography angiography may help determine appropriate treatment for stroke patients
Medicaid drug restrictions may lead to adverse events for psychiatric patients
Youth with HIV/AIDS and conduct disorder are less likely to use or adhere to antiretroviral therapy

Research Activities, January 2010:
Criteria used to identify "drugs to avoid" in the elderly are not very accurate
Antibiotic resistance is prevalent and varied in long-term-care facilities
Computerized decisionmaking systems improve physician prescribing for long-term-care residents

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Research Activities, December 2009:
High blood pressure medicines show promise for treating heart disease
Common attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder drugs have similar risk for emergency visits for cardiac problems
High blood pressure control is often elusive for blacks and Mexican Americans, despite adherence to treatment and lifestyle changes
Public reporting of hospital antibiotic timing for patients with pneumonia is not linked to antibiotic overuse or overdiagnosis
Men with prostate cancer who receive androgen deprivation therapy are at elevated risk of bone fractures, cardiovascular mortality, and diabetes
New guidelines issued for nephrotic syndrome in children
Observing patients swallowing one HIV drug on weekdays has little impact on drug adherence

Research Activities, November 2009:
Report finds that medications effectively reduce risk of breast cancer, but can cause other problems
Beta-lactams may be appropriate first-line treatment for pediatric skin infections in areas where MRSA is prevalent
Intervention leads to reduction in central venous catheter-associated blood stream infections for pediatric patients
Quality of care may be more important than volume when it comes to heart bypass surgery
Use of restorative care improves nursing home resident functioning and nursing assistants' job satisfaction
Nearly half of patients with depression drop out of treatment in a public clinic within 12 months
Particle beam radiation therapy is promising, but unproven for treating cancer

Research Activities, October 2009:
Self-management support results in better diabetes outcomes
Exercise is not being used enough to treat low back and neck pain
Algorithm now available to prevent recurrent bone fractures in nursing home residents
Treatment approaches for overactive bladder syndrome in women produce modest results

Research Activities, September 2009:
Spine and pain clinics in North Carolina vary by types of practitioners and services offered
Primary care providers often prescribe antiviral medications inappropriately for influenza patients
Patient hopelessness is linked to poor participation in cardiac rehabilitation exercise
Leakage problems following surgery for rectal cancer can be managed with a minimally invasive approach
Targeted energy treatment helps correct irregular heartbeat in the short term, but long-term effects are unknown

Research Activities, August 2009:
The complications and costs of obesity surgery are declining
Coronary artery bypass surgery may be better than angioplasty for older patients and those with diabetes
Medicare's end-stage renal disease program seems to have reduced outcome disparities among dialysis patients
AHRQ report finds value of genetic testing for preventing blood clots unproven

Research Activities, July 2009:
Children with acute bone infections can be switched from intravenous to oral antibiotics before hospital discharge
The number of hospitalized children on antifungal therapy has increased along with use of newer antifungal agents
Risk factors for resistance to fluoroquinolone antibiotics change over time
Previous antimicrobial use is linked to drug resistance in Candida glabrata bloodstream infections
Elderly patients on digoxin, recently discharged from the hospital, are at higher risk for drug-related toxicity
New AHRQ report finds no clear evidence for which erectile dysfunction drugs work best

Research Activities, June 2009:
Type of beta blocker may affect mortality after hospitalization for heart failure
Failure to intensify drug therapies may lead to suboptimal control of diabetes despite adequate monitoring
Patients infected with hepatitis C virus fare best with optimal dosage and adherence to combination medications
Deaths and rehospitalizations for elderly patients have not decreased despite advances in heart failure therapies

Research Activities, April 2009:
Two interventions to increase the physical activity of people with multiple sclerosis fare equally well

Research Activities, February 2009:
Use of atypical antipsychotic drugs increases the risk of sudden cardiac death in adults

Research Activities, January 2009:
Repeated immunoassays are not helpful in diagnosing an infectious form of colitis and diarrhea
Daily hemodialysis is cost-effective for intensive care patients with acute kidney injury
Use of mesh for repair of an incisional hernia varies with the surgeon's style, not the patient's condition

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