Sir Francis Drake: A Pictorial Biography by Hans P. Kraus
The Famous Voyage: The Circumnavigation of the World, 1577-1580
Drake was noted in his life for one daring feat after another;
his greatest was his circumnavigation of the earth, the first after
Magellan's. He sailed from Plymouth on Dec. 13, 1577. The squadron
consisted of five vessels, the two larger ships being the Pelican,
Drake's own ship, renamed Golden Hind on the voyage,
on August 20, 1578; and the Elizabeth, commanded by
John Winter. Three smaller vessels were the Marigold, Swan,
and Benedict. Only one ship, the Golden Hind, made
the complete voyage, returning on Sept. 26, 1580, "very richly
fraught with gold, silver, pearls and precious stones" (Stow, Annales ,
The expedition was financed as a joint venture, the investors
being such high officials as Privy Councilors Robert Dudley, Earl
of Leicester; Sir Francis Walsingham; the Earl of Lincoln, Lord
High Admiral of England; also, Sir Christopher Hatton; Sir William
Winter, Surveyor and Master of Ordnance of the Navy; and John Hawkins,
Drake's former commander. Queen Elizabeth herself may have been
an investor, though this is not quite certain; what is certain
is that she appropriated the lion's share of the proceeds of the
voyage. Drake himself participated to the tune of £1000,
a good sum for that time.
These joint venture companies, partnerships, or associations
were a common method of organizing and financing commercial voyages,
military expeditions, and colonizing activities, from the Middle
Ages onwards. They are explained by J. H. Parry ( The Age
of Reconnaissance , pp. 49-50) as "Partnerships for conducting
commercial enterprises...usually not corporations but rather ad
hoc devices for uniting a number of capitalists...or a number
of partners...or active participants in an enterprise...All these
types of associations under various names--commenda, societas,
compagnia, and so forth--were employed in seaborne trade". Parry
mentions also "associations of individuals formed to undertake
particular enterprises--military expeditions for example--on behalf
of the State". The examples cited by Parry are Italian, but he
remarks that "the Dutch and English were to emerge as the Italians'
aptest pupils in this respect". For another example of such a company
or partnership, see the financial papers of the Drake-Norris expedition
of 1589 (pp. 162-164).
The little fleet proceeded to the Cape Verde Islands, where,
on January 30, 1578, the Portuguese pilot Nunho da Silva was captured
(see his narrative, pp. 106-109). Thence they sailed across the
Atlantic to the coasts of South America near the River Plate, and
went southwards to Port St. Julian, where Magellan had anchored
58 years previously; they arrived there on June 18, 1578.
The Doughty affair was a crisis in Drake's life; on its outcome
depended the success of the circumnavigation, and hence, probably,
the defeat of the Invincible Armada. The tragedy was this: Thomas
Doughty (d. 1578), a friend of Drake, and one well acquainted with
many prominent Englishmen, was an officer on Drake's circumnavigation
voyage. He was accused by Drake of treachery and incitement to
mutiny. He was put on trial at Port St. Julian, where Magellan
had suppressed a conspiracy of some of his high ranking officers,
including Captain Juan de Cartagena, and hanged some of them. Doughty
was found guilty and given the choice of being abandoned on that
desolate coast; of being returned to England for retrial; or of
execution on the spot. He chose death, which was by beheading in
accordance with his gentlemanly status.
Before the execution he and Drake dined together as old friends,
and both received communion from Chaplain Fletcher. After embracing
Drake and praying for the Queen and the realm, Doughty quietly
put his neck on the block and received the stroke of the sword.
The mystery lies in the question as to what Doughty's role really
was. Who were his principals in England, if any? Was he a secret
agent planted by Lord Burghley to prevent Drake from plundering
Spanish ships and ports in America, so that war with Spain could
be avoided? Were personal motives involved? It is known that Doughty
had intrigued to cause ill-feeling between the Earl of Leicester,
Queen Elizabeth's favorite, and Walter Devereux, the first Earl
The execution of Thomas Doughty from pp. 32-33 of The
World Encompassed , 1628, never mentioning the name
of the unhappy officer. 
Drake's action was judged very differently by different contemporaries.
The accounts in The World Encompassed , and by Hakluyt,
defend Drake; but other authorities, like Camden, virtually accuse
him of murdering Doughty, either from jealousy of his superior
abilities, or at the behest of Leicester. As Drake's conduct was
never officially questioned, it must be assumed that the justice
and legality of Doughty's execution were admitted.
About a month after Doughty's execution another crisis arose;
in its solution Drake showed himself at his best. The long wintering
in Port St. Julian before attempting the passage of the Strait
of Magellan had had a demoralizing effect. There was quarreling
and hatred between the gentlemen and mariners, and the long cold
winter nights had made the situation even worse. Drake had to act
to prevent a mutiny. At a religious service Drake preached the
sermon in place of Fletcher. In this famous discourse he laid down
new rules of conduct: sailors and gentlemen, he declared, were
to work together as equals, apart from those who were officers.
From this time on, everyone was subject to Drake's sole command,
and it can now be seen that the success of the voyage hinged on
this. According to J. A. Williamson, the leading authority on Tudor
naval history, "that day saw the beginning of a new tradition in
English leadership" ( The Age of Drake , p. 181). Drake's
speech was reported by a witness, John Cooke (Harl. ms. 540). See
p. 72 for Hakluyt's report of the Port St. Julian episode.
On August 20, 1578, the ships began to traverse the Strait of
Magellan, passing through in 16 days. Violent storms were encountered
after they entered the Pacific; the last of the three small boats
was lost and the Elizabeth , under the command of John
Winter, became separated from Drake, repassed the Strait, and returned
to England, arriving there on June 2, 1579. From that time on Drake
was entirely alone, with no reserve vessel to fall back on. In
the storms, Drake was driven to the south of Tierra del Fuego,
and he came to the correct conclusion that the Terra Australis ,
a hypothetical southern continent, did not reach to that area,
as had been supposed. A few contemporary maps were altered to remove
the error, but most of them continued to show it until Cape Horn
was rounded by Le Maire and Schouten a few years later.
In the Pacific, the Spaniards were physically and psychologically
unprepared to resist attack; those shores had been exclusively
in their hands for two generations, during which time they had
spent little on defense. They were thrown into confusion and Drake
seized immense treasure without much resistance.
Drake sailed slowly along the coast of Chile, raiding the harbor
of Valparaiso and seizing stores and gold there. On February 15,
1579, he arrived at Callao, the harbor of Lima, the Peruvian capital.
This portion of the Spanish Empire was almost defenseless and the
arrival of Drake caused panic and consternation. Here he obtained
news of a treasure ship which had sailed 12 days previously for
Panama. Drake set out in hot pursuit and overtook the ship on March
1. It was the Nuestra Señora de la Concepción ,
variously nicknamed the Cacafuego or Cacaplata .
Her captain did not expect an enemy in those waters and mistook
the Golden Hind for a friendly Spanish vessel. To his
great dismay, he soon was Drake's prisoner; his ship proved to
be Drake's richest plunder.
The next episode of the circumnavigation was the discovery of
the coast of Upper California, which was named New Albion. "Albion" was
the classical name for England, so called from the white ("alba")
cliffs of Dover. After stopping at Huatulco in Central America
for two days, Drake sailed northwards, perhaps as far as Vancouver
Island, probably searching for the elusive Northwest Passage. If
so, he quickly gave up the quest and went south again to the vicinity
of San Francisco Bay, where he remained for over a month (June-July,
1579), overhauling his ship and making friendly contact with the
On July 23, 1579, the Golden Hind began her voyage
across the Pacific; on October 16, Drake sighted land in the Philippines,
and on Nov. 3 arrived at Ternate in the East Indies. Here he made
a trade treaty with the Sultan, and bought a cargo of cloves. On
January 9, 1580, the Golden Hind struck a reef, but
fortunately was able to slip off the next day, and to sail onward,
first to Java, then across the Indian Ocean, around the Cape of
Good Hope, and back to Plymouth (Sept. 26, 1580). In order not
to antagonize King Philip, there was no public celebration of Drake's
return. The enormous treasure he brought back was put under safeguard
in Plymouth. Drake quietly informed the Queen and the investors
of the amount of profit which had been earned by the voyage--this
has been stated to be 4600 percent (£47 for each £1
invested). On April 4, 1581, Elizabeth had Drake knighted, on the
occasion of a visit to the Golden Hind . (See his coat
of arms, reproduced in the upper right corner of the Hondius portrait,
frontispiece). He certainly deserved this honor. According to the
economist J. M. Keynes, the English foreign debt was paid off from
the Queen's share of the proceeds, and there was enough left over
(£42,000) for her to capitalize a new venture, the Levant
Company, a firm which played an important part in the development
of British foreign trade (see Keynes, Treatise on Money ).
The earliest published narrative of Drake's circumnavigation
in Hakluyt's The Principall Navigations , 1589,
supplementary leaves between pp. 643 and 644. 
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Le Voyage Curieux , a French version of Hakluyt's
narrative of Drake's circumnavigation, with chapter heading
on California (Nova Albion), 1641. 
The Hakluyt narrative was translated into several languages, but
the best of these versions was the one in French. Below are the
title and beginning of the California narrative from the third
edition; it had previously appeared in 1613 and 1627.
Eight years before the Hakluyt account appeared, in January,
1581, the writer Nicholas Breton celebrated Drake's return with
a little book, containing "a reioysing of his happy aduentures," written
in euphuistic prose. For many years the title of this work had
been known from an entry in the Stationers' Register, but the author's
name had not been mentioned there, and there could be only conjecture
about its possible contents.
Nicholas Breton's Discourse on Drake's "happy
adventures," 1581; the only copy known. 
The present copy appears to be unique; we reproduce only the title
The World Encompassed by Sir Francis Drake , 1628,
is the first detailed account of the "famous voyage"; it adds very
much to the Hakluyt report. It is a compilation from several sources,
the most important of which is the journal of Francis Fletcher,
the chaplain on board the Golden Hind . Fletcher was
not very friendly to Drake--he had been severely disciplined by
him ("excommunicated") while the voyagers were in the East Indies.
His account has been heavily edited in places, especially in the
passages concerning Drake's execution of his friend Thomas Doughty.
Part of Fletcher's version is still extant (BM Sloane ms. 61).
Title page of The World Encompassed , 1628. 
The engraved world map in
The World Encompassed by Sir Francis Drake , 1628.
Gerard Mercator's Speculation About Drake's Circumnavigation
How difficult it was to keep Drake's famous voyage secret is
shown by a letter [2a] written
only ten weeks after his arrival at Plymouth by the outstanding
map-maker Gerard Mercator (1512-1594) to the equally great cartographer
Abraham Ortelius (1527-1598). Ortelius was also a brilliant publisher
of maps, many of which Drake probably used during his voyage. Mercator's
grandson Michael (1565/1570-1614) was, nine years later, to produce
the great Silver Map of the circumnavigation ;
and Gerard here mentions his youngest son, Rumold Mercator (1546/8-1599).
Gerard Mercator had himself urged on the English geographer Dr.
John Dee the feasibility of voyaging from England to the Pacific
by a North East Passage, as far back as 1577, when Drake had left
England. His letter is based upon the fact that his idea had been
taken up in the instructions given to Arthur Pett, to whom Mercator
here refers. Pett sailed in an expedition sent out by the English
Muscovy Company to discover the North East Passage in June 1580.
The voyage is extensively documented in the 1589 edition of Hakluyt ,
who had belatedly approached Gerard Mercator through Rumold with
further questions about the expedition.
When he answered Hakluyt in July, Mercator forecast that off
Siberia Pett would be obstructed by polar ice; eventually, Pett
returned to England for that very reason late in December 1580.
However, contrary to Mercator's theory, he had done nothing to
help Drake, who arrived back in England first. Also, Drake, of
course, returned by the obvious route around the Cape of Good Hope,
and not by the North East Passage; and his treasure was indeed
the result of plunder, not of the new discovery that Mercator imagined.
This letter shows that the true story of Drake's voyage was a matter
of lively concern to contemporary cartographers, and that rumors
were circulated which concealed the truth from these scholars on
the continent of Europe. Perhaps Mercator was a little annoyed
to find the English so eager for his advice on Pett's voyage, while
unwilling to tell him anything about Drake's.
Drake's own journal, with its narrative and paintings, was immediately
placed by him in the hands of the Queen, who seems to have lost
it irretrievably. The long silence from then until Hakluyt published
his "Famous Voyage" account was hardly broken except by Breton,
with his poem .
Drake was bidden to keep silence about his voyage because of the
diplomatic danger if his armed intrusion into King Philip's dominions
were admitted. He swore his men to secrecy--the only means by which
they could hope to keep their booty. The late date at which any
reliable, let alone detailed, account of Drake's circumnavigation
became public reflects the early dearth of information, from which
even professional geographers suffered.
This significant letter may be considered one of the crowning
pieces of this collection on Sir Francis Drake. Though acquired
only at a late stage, it cannot be ignored and so has been inserted
Gerard Mercator's autograph letter to Abraham Ortelius, 1580,
relating to Drake's famous voyage. [2a]
TRANSLATION OF THE RELEVANT PARTS OF MERCATOR'S LETTER IN LATIN
REPRODUCED ON THE RIGHT
Greetings to Master Ortelius, the best of friends.
Your letter afforded me great pleasure, first because you
have obtained what you have wanted for a long time about China,
secondly because of the dispatch about the new English voyage,
on which you had previously sent me a report through Rumold [Mercator].
I am persuaded that there can be no reason for so carefully concealing
the course followed during this voyage, nor for putting out differing
accounts of the route taken and the areas visited, other than
that they must have found very wealthy regions never yet discovered
by Europeans, not even by those who have sailed the Ocean on
the Indies voyages. That huge treasure in silver and precious
stones which they pretend they secured through plunder is, in
any case, an argument for me to suspect this, and then again,
there is what I am now to set down: that in April this year I
was informed from England that the merchants who trade with the
Muscovites [i.e., the Russia Company] and have a post to trade
with them on the gulf of the Amalchian or Northern sea [i.e.,
Archangel, on the White Sea] had decided last May to send out
secretly a certain very experienced mariner, Arthur Pitt [sic;
otherwise Pett or Pet] by name, and to give him orders to survey
all the coasts of northern Asia, even beyond the promontory of
Tabin, in a fast ship furnished with all the victuals necessary
for two years. For this reason I suspect, rather, that he was
sent out to search for the fleet [i.e., Drake's] which, by passing
through the Strait of Magellan, reached Peru, the Moluccas and
Java on its return thence, and to escort it home.
Moreover, in any case, I think that that fleet cannot have
returned by any route except one via the north and west of Asia,
for that strait which encloses the northern parts of America
to within only a few degrees on a great circle westward from
Greenland, which Frobisher explored, is obstructed by many rocks.
So it does not seem likely that Drake would have tried it, especially
if he came back from Asia so loaded down with treasure. For his
return westwards would be much shorter--indeed, [the route] has
for some time since been known to be [only] about half [the distance]--if
he were in
fact to come back by the island of Vaigatz and Nova Zemlya,
and thence reach England. This voyage by Arthur [Pett] was reported
to me in confidence, so keep secret the fact that you know anything
about it. However, in the meantime, you might well fish for the
truth of the matter among all your friends; for if one meets with
many and inquires of them, they cannot all lie so splendidly that
the truth will not out [this observation is a conscious echo of
Horace, Odes, 3: 11,35] ...[The following 17½ lines are here
Farewell, most distinguished and beloved of men: from Duisburg,
12 December 1580
To Master Abraham Ortelius, Cosmographer Royal, a man most
distinguished in scholarship and humanity, at Antwerp.
Description of the California (Albion) region on page 80
of The World Encompassed by Sir Francis Drake ,
Drake's contemporaries correctly assessed his "famous voyage" as
one of the great feats of the age, and reports of it appeared in
various European languages. In 1596 the publisher De Bry of Frankfurt
included a somewhat abridged version of the Hakluyt narrative in
Part VIII of his famous collection of voyages, in Latin, and in
1599 it appeared in German. In both editions a fine engraved map
on the title shows the track of the voyage as a dotted line. These
are later derivatives of the Whitehall map of Drake's voyage, not
now extant (for an account of which see the van Sype map, pp. 102-103).
Title page of Part VIII of De Bry's Grands Voyages ,
(Latin edition), 1599.  The map shows the track of Drake's
famous voyage as a dotted line.
The passage on California (Nova Albion) in Pan VIII of De
Bry's Grands Voyages (Latin edition). 1599.
Another German version of Drake's voyage is in Part VI of the
series of voyages published by Levinus Hulsius. We reproduce here,
from the 1626 edition, the title, text relating to New Albion (California)
and the engraving of the battle with the ship Nuestra Señora
de la Concepción , the rich treasure ship taken by
Drake. The engraving wrongly depicts one ship as the Caca
Fogo and the other as Caca Plata ; in fact both
these names (meaning "emit gunfire" and "emit silver") were nicknames
jokingly designating the Spanish ship. Note also that H. R. Wagner
( Sir Francis Drake's Voyage , p. 117) wrongly identifies
this engraving as from De Bry.
Section title to De Bry's Grands Voyages , (German
edition), 1600.  The map shows the track of Drake's famous
voyage as a dotted line.
The passage on California (Nova Albion) in the supplement
to Part VIII of De Bry's Grands Voyages , (German
edition), 1600, pp. 15-16. 
An engraving of the battle between Drake's Golden Hind and
the Spanish ship called "Caca Fogo," from Levinus Hulsius,
Title page of Part VI of Levinus Hulsius' collection of voyages,
in German, 1626. The medallion portraits of circumnavigators
in the engraving show Magellan, Drake, Olivier Noort, the
first Dutch circumnavigator, and Magellan's subordinate,
Sebastiano del Cano, who assumed command of the expedition
when Magellan was killed in the Philippine Islands. 
The passage on Drake's stay in California (Nova Albion) in
Hulsius, 1626. 
The southern hemisphere of the Hulsius map of 1602, showing
the "Francis Drake Islands." 
One of the two geographical discoveries of the first importance
in the Drake circumnavigation was that of the insular nature of
Tierra del Fuego (the other being his discovery of Upper California).
This is depicted on a map of two sheets, present in this collection
both folded in the Hulsius Part VI, and separately, on unfolded
sheets, in original size with untrimmed edges. Very few maps have
survived from this period in such fine condition. The map shows,
below the meridian number 300 the "Francisci Draco Ins[ulae]." They
are generally not so designated, as the largest of the three islands
had been named after Queen Elizabeth, and it is her name which
is usually found there. It is clear that Hulsius failed to appreciate
the significance of Drake's discovery, as his map continues to
show Tierra del Fuego as a quasi-continental land mass, its shores
petering out vaguely southwards in the margins of the map. It is
not at all certain what islands Drake reached southwards of the
Magellan Strait. H. R. Wagner considered them to be Henderson,
Morton, and Sanderson Islands. It seems certain that he did not
reach Cape Horn.
A Spanish account of the Drake voyage is in Argensola's Conquistas
de las Islas Malucas , 1609, pp. 105-108. The discovery
of New Albion (Upper California) is mentioned on p. 106, Argensola
evidently considering it to be an island. English names are in
the phonetic spellings encountered in Spanish sources, Drake
being Draque; Hawkins, Aquines; Plymouth, Plemua; Thomas Doughty,
Tomas Auter (!).
Passage on Drake's discovery of California (Nueva Albion)
in Argensola's Conquista de las Islas Malucas ,
A briefer Spanish account of the voyage is in Cabrera de Cordova's Filipe
Segundo , 1619, p. 1071. Evidently the author did not wish
to elaborate on this embarrassing affair in his laudatory biography
of King Philip.
An Italian version of the circumnavigation is in Giuseppe Rosaccio's Discorso...della
Terra , (c. 1610). Reproduced below is the text describing
the voyage (C2 verso) and, on the next page, the planisphere
Account of Drake's voyage in Cabrera de Cordova's Filipe
Segundo , 1619. 
Account of Drake's voyage in Rosaccio's Discorso ,
c. 1610. 
Thomas Blundeville, a contemporary of Drake, describes the circumnavigation
and how the routes of Drake and Cavendish (the third circumnavigator)
were marked on the terrestrial globe constructed by Emery Molyneux
in 1592. From Blundeville's work ( Thomas Blundeville His
Exercises, 1613) we reproduce the section title on Drake
and part of his narrative.
The planisphere map engraved by Luigi Rosaccio, c. 1610.
The author has placed the letters of the name of his Medici
patron, Cosimo, on the six balls of the Medici arms with
representation of the Arctic (with a presumed northern
continent), the Antarctic, and the four continents then
known. Below is the Ptolemaic world map. 
Title for the section on Drake in Blundeville's Exercises ,
The account of California (Nova Albion) in Blundeville's Exercises ,
One of the greatest cartographic treasures of the Elizabethan
era is a map bearing the legend "Carte veuee et corige par le dict
sieur Drack" ("A map seen and corrected by the aforesaid Sir Drake").
This is the Nicola van Sype engraved map of the circumnavigation,
entitled "La Herdike Enterprinse Faict Par Le Signeur Draeck D'Avoir
Cirquit Toute La Terre". Mr. F. P. Sprent, late Superintendent
of the Map Room of the British Museum, remarked of this map: "There
is good reason for believing this to be the earliest of the maps
which show Drake's route round the world". Mr. Sprent believed
the map may have appeared as early as 1581.
The van Sype map is clearly derived from the Whitehall map which
was presented to Queen Elizabeth, according to Samuel Purchas,
Hakluyt's successor as the leading English naval historian. The
donor must have been Drake himself. An inscription quoted by Purchas
is present (in French) on the van Sype map, and the English arms,
crown and garter are in the place on the map (Elizabeth Island,
near Cape Horn) stated by Purchas ( Purchas His Pilgrimes ,
III, iii, p. 461, reproduced below).
It should be noted that the medallion portrait on the map mentions
Drake's age as 42 years. No other engraved portrait is known which
carries so early an age; both the Hondius portrait (frontispiece)
and others all give his age as 43. A portrait miniature by Hilliard
of Drake at age 42 is known (see Hind, Engraving in England, I,
Another indication of early dating for this map is the absence
of any mention of Virginia, which was named in 1584.
The passage relating to the Whitehall map, which Drake had
presented to Queen Elizabeth, in Purchas his Pilgrimes ,
The van Sype showing the Drake circumnavigation as a dotted
line, c. 1518. 
The unique example of the Silver Map, showing the track of
Drake's famous voyage as a dotted line, with the name of
Mercator and the date 1589. 
Another such early map is found on a silver medal, commemorating
Drake's circumnavigation, the famous Silver Map. Only one of the
few surviving examples (see above) mentions in a cartouche the
date 1589 and Mercator's name. None of the other copies bears either
the date or the engraver's name. It had been previously known,
through a statement recorded by Samuel Purchas, that Michael Mercator,
grandson of Gerard Mercator, was the cartographer and engraver.
Purchas also records that this Silver Map is directly derived
from the Whitehall map previously mentioned, and it is thus closely
related to the van Sype map, as is clear, furthermore, from a comparison
of the geographical features.
The known examples of the Silver Map vary considerably in weight,
from a low of 260 grains (one of the British Museum copies) to
a high of 424 grains. The present one, 383 grains, is the third
heaviest recorded; it is certainly unsurpassed in its close to
pristine condition, with every detail sharp and clear. The second
example of the Silver Map in this collection (without Mercator's
name, or the date, see next page) is the second heaviest known,
weighing 410 grains.
The passage relating to the Silver Map in Purchas his
Pilgrimes , 1625. 
An important event of Drake's circumnavigation was the capture
of Nunho da Silva, a Portuguese merchant and pilot, who was able
to pilot Drake across the South Atlantic and along the coast of
Brazil. Silva was captured by Drake on January 30, 1578, with his
little merchant ship off Santiago in the Cape Verde Islands. His
vessel was confiscated by Drake, and his own services were commandeered.
He remained with the circumnavigators until April 13, 1579, when
he was released at Huatulco in Central America.
Silva had been seen on board the Golden Hind by several
Spanish prisoners of Drake who had been previously released, and
who had reported that he seemed to be a member of Drake's crew.
He was, therefore, strictly questioned by the Mexican civil authorities,
and the Inquisition also intervened, to discover whether he had
willingly attended any of the Protestant religious services which
were held on board every day. Silva therefore had to make a full
statement to the Inquisition also.
The Silver Map, showing the track of Drake's famous voyage
as a dotted line, undated, without Mercator's name. [58a]
The narrative reproduced on the following pages gives the beginning
of Silva's statement to the Viceroy of Mexico, made on May 20,
1579. It covers events of the voyage from the Cape Verde Islands
to the Strait of Magellan. Note that the "cosario yngles" ("English
pirate") of the caption title is supplemented by a marginal note, "Llama
se Francisco Drac este cossario" ("The pirate is named Francis
In his statement to the Inquisition, which is somewhat fuller
than the present one, Silva refers to color drawings which Drake
was making of the localities he visited; he says (trans.): "He
is an adept at painting and has with him a boy, a relative of his
[his cousin, John Drake] who is a great painter. When they both
shut themselves up in his cabin they were always painting". From
other captives of Drake who made depositions, we know that he was
fond of music, and that he had on board trumpets and violins ("they
brought four viols, and made lamentations and sang together"--trans.).