Visual Materials: Processing & Cataloging
Access techniques for historical picture collections draw
on conventions developed in the library, archival, and museum
communities. This bibliography lists basic manuals that provide
guidance in physical care and arrangement, media identification,
archival and bibliographic description, subject indexing,
and digital reformatting of photographs, prints, architectural
and other design drawings, cartoons, and posters. The selected
articles and Web sites illustrate practices in a variety of
institutions to help collection managers identify approaches
suitable to their organizations' pictorial holdings.
Whirlpool Rapids, looking up Niagara, N.Y. Detroit Publishing
Co., c1898 (LC-USZC2-5785)
Links to relevant Internet sites have been given, when appropriate.
The Library of Congress does not maintain most of these sites. Users
should direct concerns about these links to their respective site
administrators or webmasters.
Table of Contents
Adelstein, Peter Z. IPI Media Storage Quick Reference.
Rochester, NY: Image Permanence Institute, 2004. http://www.climatenotebook.org/MSQR/MSQR_home.html
Archives Association of British Columbia. A Manual for
Small Archives. Vancouver: The Association, 1988,
partially rev. 1994, c1999. http://aabc.bc.ca/aabc/msa/
Cook, Michael. Managing Archives. London: International
Records Management Trust and International Council on Archives,
1999. 184 p. http://www.irmt.org/downloadlist/education.html.
Dooley, Jackie M. "Processing and Cataloging of Archival Photograph
Collections," Visual Resources 11:1 (1995): 85-101.
Fischer, Monique. A Short Guide to Film-base Photographic Materials:
Identification, Care, and Duplication. Andover, MA: Northeast
Document Conservation Center, last updated 2006. http://www.nedcc.org/leaflets/nitrate.htm
Fox, Michael J., and Peter L. Wilkerson. Introduction to
Archival Organization and Description: Access to Cultural Heritage.
Los Angeles: Getty Information Institute, 1998. 66 p.
available online at http://www.getty.edu/research/conducting_research/standards/introarchives/index.html
Hamburger, Susan. Architectural Records: Arrangement, Description,
and Preservation. Mid-Atlantic Regional Archives Conference,
Library of Congress. Preservation Directorate. Care, Handling,
and Storage of Photographs: Information Leaflet. Rev. 2002. http://www.loc.gov/preserv/care/photolea.html
Malan, Nancy E. "Organizing Photo Collections: An Introspective
Approach," in A Modern Archives Reader. Edited by
Maygene F. Daniels and Timothy Walch. Washington, DC: National
Records Service, 1984, pp. 181-186.
Mustardo, Peter, and Nora Kennedy. Photographic Preservation:
Basic Methods of Safeguarding Your Collections. (Technical
Leaflets Series no. 9) Mid-Atlantic Regional Archives Conference,
1994. 36 p.
National Historical Publications and Records Commission. Historical Photograph Grant Suggestions . Washington, DC: NHPRC,
February 1992. Also available online at
National Park Service. Conserv O Grams 1993-2005. http://www.cr.nps.gov/museum/publications/conserveogram/cons_toc.html
National Park Service. Museum Management Program. Museum
Handbook, Part II: Museum Records. Washington, D.C.: National
Park Service and the Government Printing Office, 2000. Also available
-----. Preservation 101: Preservation basics for paper and media collections. 2006. http://www.nedcc.org/education/online.php
-----. Preservation of
& Archival Materials: A Manual. 3rd ed. Andover, MA:
NEDCC, 1999. Looseleaf volume. Also available online at http://www.nedcc.org/plam3/manhome.htm
Pearce-Moses, Richard. The Heard Museum Library and Archives:
Documentary Research Collections Processing Manual. Phoenix:
Arizona State Library, Archives and Public Records, 1997. http://rpm.lib.az.us/hapm/.
Roe, Kathleen. Arranging and Describing Archives and Manuscripts. Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 2005. 180 p.
Research Libraries Group. Photograph Preservation and the
Research Library. Mountain View, CA: RLG, 1991. 56 p.
St. Johnsbury Athenaeum Archives. Archives Processing Manual.
Montpelier, VT: Vermont Historical Records Advisory Board, 2001. http://vermont-archives.org/boards/vhrab/processing.doc
Ritzenthaler, Mary L., and Diane Vogt-O'Conner, with Helena Zinkham, Brett Carnell, and Kit Peterson. Photographs: Archival Care and Management. Chicago: Society of American
Archivists, 2006. 529 p.
Robl, Ernest H. Organizing Your Photographs. New York:
Amphoto, 1986. 191 p.
Stanford University Libraries, Preservation Dept. Conservation
Online (Cool).1994- .
Tschabrun, Susan. "Off the Wall and into a Drawer: Managing
a Research Collection of Political Posters," American
Archivist 66 (Fall/Winter 2003): 303-324.
See also the online bibliography in TGM II:
Baldwin, Gordon. Looking at Photographs: A Guide to Technical
Terms. Malibu, CA.: J. Paul Getty Museum in association
with British Museum Press, 1991. 88 p.
Gascoigne, Bamber. How to Identify Prints: A Complete Guide
to Manual and Mechanical Processes from Woodcut to Ink Jet.
London: Thames & Hudson, 1986. 107 p.
Goldman, Paul. Looking at Prints, Drawings, and Watercolours:
A Guide to Technical Terms. London: British Museum Publications
; Malibu, CA.: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1988. 64 p.
Jürgens, Martin. Digital Print Identification Web Site:
Kissel, Eléonore & Erin Vigneau. Architectural
Photoreproductions: A Manual for Identification and Care.
Newcastle, DE: Oak Knoll Press and The New York Botanical Garden,
1999 121 pp.
Lent, John A., comp. Animation, Caricature, and Gag and
Political Cartoons in the United States and Canada: An International
Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994. 415 p.
Nadeau, Luis. Encyclopedia of Printing, Photographic and
Photomechanical Processes. Fredericton, N.B.: L. Nadeau,
1997. 542 p.
Philadelphia Print Shop. Reference Library. 2002. http://www.philaprintshop.com/library.html
(Includes dictionary of printmaking terms, glossary of abbreviations
used by printmakers, and discussion of print processes.)
Reilly, James M. Care and Identification of 19th-Century
Photographic Prints. Rochester, NY: Eastman Kodak, 1986.
Rickards, Maurice. Collecting Printed Ephemera. New
York: Abbeville Press, 1988. 224 p.
Rickards, Maurice. The Encyclopedia of Ephemera: A Guide to the Fragmentary Documents of Everyday Life for the Collector, Curator, and Historian. New York: Routledge, 2000.
Rosenblum, Naomi. A World History of Photography.
3rd ed. New York: Abbeville Press, 1997. 695 p.
Weill, Alain. The Poster: A Worldwide Survey and History.
Boston: G.K. Hall, 1985. 422 p.
Armitage, Linda H., and Peter G.B. Enser. "Analysis of User
Need in Image Archives," Journal of Information Science 23:
4 (1997): 287-299.
Burke, Peter. Eyewitnessing: The Uses of Images as Historical
Evidence. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2001.
Carter, John E. "The Trained Eye: Photographs and Historical Context."
Public Historian 15 (Winter 1993): 55-66.
Coventry, Michael, Peter Felten, David Jaffee, Cecilia O'Leary,
and Tracey Weis, with Susannah McGowan. "Ways of Seeing: Evidence and Learning in the History Classroom." Journal of American History 92 no. 4 (March 2006), http://www.indiana.edu/%7Ejah/textbooks/2006/introduction.shtml
Hortin, John A. "Theoretical Foundations of Visual Learning." In Visual Literacy, 5-29. Edited by David M. Moore
and Francis M. Dwyer. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Educational Technology
Kaplan, Elisabeth, and Jeffrey
Mifflin. "'Mind and Sight':
Visual Literacy and the Archivist." In American Archival
73-97. Edited by Randall C. Jimerson. Chicago: Society of American
Archivists, 2000. Originally published in Archival
Issues 21, no.
2 (1996): 107-127.
Kingston, Maxine H. "San Francisco's Chinatown: A View from the
Other Side of Arnold Genthe's Camera." American Heritage (December
Levine, Robert M. Images of History: Nineteenth and Early
Twentieth Century Latin American Photographs as Documents.
Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1989. 216 p.
Malan, Nancy. "American Women Through the Camera's Eye." In Clio
Was a Woman: Studies in the History of American Women,
260-302. Edited by Mabel E. Deutrich and Virginia C. Purdy.
Washington, DC: Howard
University Press, 1980.
Mann, Thomas. The Oxford Guide to Library Research.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. 316 p.
Mattison, David."Images of History on the Web." Searcher
10 (May 2002).
Natanson, Barbara O. "Spot the Hyphen? Representations of Immigrants
and Members of Ethnic Groups in Illustrated Newspaper and Magazine
Stories, 1880-1925." PhD. University of Maryland College Park,
1999. 564 pp. (University Microfilm No. 9925819)
Rose, Gillian. Visual Methodologies: An Introduction to the
Interpretation of Visual Materials. London: Sage Publications,
Rundell, Walter. "Photographs as Historical Evidence: Early Texas
Oil." American Archivist41 (Oct. 1978): 373-398.
Scherer, Joanna C. "You Can't Believe Your Eyes: Inaccuracies
in Photographs of North American Indians." Studies in
the Anthropology of Visual Communication 2 (Fall 1975):
Schlereth, Thomas J. "Mirrors of the Past: Historical Photography
and American History." In his Artifacts and the American
11-47. Nashville, TN: American Association for State and Local
History, 1980. Reprint, Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press, 1996.
Schultz, John, and Barbara Schultz. Picture Research: A
Practical Guide. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1991.
Schwartz, Joan M. "'We Make Our Tools and Our Tools
Make Us': Lessons from Photographs for the Practice, Politics,
and Poetics of Diplomatics." Archivaria 40 (Fall 1995): 40-74.
-----, and James R. Ryan. Picturing Place: Photography
and the Geographical Imagination. London: I.B. Tauris,
Severa, Joan L. Dressed for the Photographer: Ordinary Americans
and Fashion, 1840-1900. Kent, OH: Kent State University
Press, 1995. 592 p.
Thompson, William Fletcher. The Image of War: The Pictorial
Reporting of the American Civil War. New York: T. Yoseloff,
1960. 248 p.
Vanderbilt, Paul. "The Graphic History Society of America and
Its Aims." Eye To Eye (June 1953): 1-6.
Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules. 2d ed, 2002 revision.
Chicago: American Library Association, 2002-. (Chapters 21-26 cover
choice of access points, including directions for formulating headings
for persons, geographic names, and corporate bodies.)
Betz, Elisabeth W. Graphic Materials: Rules for Describing
Original Items and Historical Collections. Washington,
DC: Library of Congress, 1982. 155 p. (Alternative to Anglo-American
Cataloguing Rules, Chapter 8.) Text of GM is available online in
several formats at http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/gm/graphmat.html.
Encoded Archival Description (EAD). Document Type
Definition and Tag Library (Version 2002) and Application Guidelines
(Version 1998) are available online: http://www.loc.gov/ead/ead.html.
(The EAD Home Page provides links to other finding aid Web sites,
and helper tools and files.)
Library of Congress. Library of Congress Rule Interpretations.
2nd ed. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, Cataloging
Distribution Service, 2002 cumulation, 1989 base text with updates
to 2006. 2 vols.
-----. Library of Congress Subject Headings.
30th ed. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, Cataloging
Distribution Service, 2007. 5 vols. (P&P uses for geographic
names and other proper noun subjects.)
-----. Cataloging Policy and Support Office. Subject
Cataloging Manual. Subject Headings. 5th ed. Washington,
DC: Cataloging Distribution Service, Library of Congress, 1996
with updates. 4 vols. (Includes chapters on geographic names and
the subdivision "Pictorial Works" H 1935.)
Library of Congress. Network
Development and MARC Standards Office. MARC 21 Format
for Bibliographic Data. Washington, DC: Library of
Congress, Cataloging Distribution Service, 1999, with updates.
21 Format for Authority Data.
1999, with updates.
----. MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data.
1999, with updates.
-----. MARC Code Lists for Relators, Sources, Description
Conventions. 2005, with updates. http://www.loc.gov/marc/relators/relahome.html
For an introduction to MARC format conventions,
see Understanding MARC bibliographic: Machine-readable cataloging.
7th ed. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, Cataloging
Distribution Service in collaboration with The Follett Software
Library of Congress. Prints and Photographs Division. Thesaurus
for Graphic Materials I: Subject Terms.(TGM I) 3rd ed., 2008. Online at: http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/tgm1/ (More than 7,00 terms for indexing pictures according to the depicted activities, objects, occupations, and events as well as concepts conveyed.)
for Graphic Materials II: Genre/Format Terms.
(TGM II or GMPGC) 3rd ed., 2008. Online at: http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/tgm2/ (About 650 terms to index media, formats, and work types.)
Library of Congress Authorities. 2002- . http://authorities.loc.gov/
(Includes 265,000 subject authority records for
LC Subject Headings and 5.3 million name authority
records--ca. 3.8 million personal, 900,000 corporate, 120,000
and 90,000 geographic names.)
NACO Participants' Manual. 3rd ed. Washington, DC:
Library of Congress, Cataloging Distribution Service, 1996. 104
p. http://www.loc.gov/catdir/pcc/naco/npm3rd.pdf (Covers
content and creation of Name Authority Records)
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency and the U.S. Board on
Geographic Names. Geonet Names Server (GNS). http://earth-info.nga.mil/gns/html/ (About
4 million features outside the U.S.)
U.S. Board on Geographic Names. Geographic Names Information
System (GNIS). http://geonames.usgs.gov/ (Almost
2 million names for physical and cultural geographic features
in the U.S.)
Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules. 2d ed., 2002 revision.
Chicago: American Library Association, 2002-. (Chapter 8 "Graphic
Materials" emphasizes modern published materials such as instructional
resources.) For information about the revised guidelines, see RDA: Resource Description and Access, http://www.collectionscanada.ca/jsc/rda.html
Baca, Murtha, and Patricia Harpring, eds. "Art Information Task
Force Categories for the Description of Works of Art," Visual
Resources 11:3/4 (1996), special issue. The CDWA is
Baca, Murtha, ed. Introduction to Metadata: Pathways to
Digital Information. Getty Information Institute, 1998.
47 p. (Includes a crosswalk of nine schemes available for visual
of which come from the art and museum communities: CDWA, CCO, VRA
Core, US MARC, Dublin Core, Object ID, FDA Guide, CIMI, and EAD.)
Version 2.1 (2000?) is online at http://www.getty.edu/research/conducting_research/standards/intrometadata/index.html
Canadian Council of Archives. Canadian Commitee on Archival Description. Rules
for Archival Description. 1998- , with updates and rule
revisions. (Chapter 4 covers "Graphic Materials" including
photographs; chapter 6 covers "Architectural and technical
Council of Australian State Libraries. Australian Pictorial
Thesaurus (APT). http://www.picturethesaurus.gov.au/about.html
("Hierarchical thesaurus of 15,000 Australian subject terms
to index pictorial collections, images and other original material
Craven, Tim, Thesaurus Construction. Ontario: Faculty
of Information and Media Studies, University of Western Ontario,
Dane, William J. The Picture Collection: Subject Headings.
6th ed. Hamden, CT: Shoe String Press, 1968.
Dates back to ca. 1905 when
the Newark Public Library started
its collection of pictures arranged
by subject. General terms
are were subdivided to create
specific topics, such as Sports--Archery.
"The headings are the result
of the attempt to make accessible
to the average person a file
of pictures which index themselves."
(3rd ed., 1928, p. 28)
Denver Public Library, Photography Collection. [Sample Subject
Terms], http://photoswest.org/samplesubj.html (A
list of ca. 200 sample subject terms used in its on-line catalog.)
Describing Archives: A Content Standard. Chicago:
Society of American Archivists, 2004. (Replaces the SAA manual
Personal Papers, and Manuscripts, by Steven L. Hensen, 1989.)
Dublin Core Metadata Initiative.
Visual information was the focus of
a workshop described by Stuart Weibel and Eric Miller (OCLC)
"Image Description on the Internet: A Summary of the CNI/OCLC
Image Metadata Workshop, September 24 - 25, 1996, Dublin, Ohio," for
DLib magazine, January 1997.
EAC (Encoded Archival Context). Created by the Ad
Hoc Working Group on EAC, beta version 2004. http://www.iath.virginia.edu/eac/.
Evans, Linda J., and Maureen O'Brien Will. MARC for Archival
Visual Materials: A Compendium of Practice. Chicago:
Chicago Historical Society, 1988. 424 p. (See especially the
Report, which spotlights problem areas, pp. 404-422.)
Getty Research Institute. Art & Architecture Thesaurus
Online. http://www.getty.edu/research/conducting_research/vocabularies/aat/index.html ("More
than 133,000 terms … and other information relating to fine
art, architecture, decorative arts, archival materials, and material
-----. Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names Online (TGN).
vocabulary of 1.3 million names, including vernacular and historical
names, coordinates, and place types … focusing on places
important for the study of art and architecture.")
-----. Union List of Artist Names (ULAN). http://www.getty.edu/research/conducting_research/vocabularies/ulan/ ("More than 225,000 names and biographical and bibliographic information
and architects, including a wealth of variant names, pseudonyms,
and language variants.")
International Council on Archives. ISAD (G): General International
Standard Archival Descripion. 2nd ed. Ottawa: ICA, 2000.
91 p. Also available online: http://www.ica.org/biblio/cds/isad_g_2e.pdf
----. International Standard Archival Authority Record For
Corporate Bodies, Persons, and Families. 2nd
ed., 2004. Also available online: http://www.ica.org/biblio.php?pdocid=144.
International Federation of Library Associations. Digital
Libraries: Metadata Resources. Last revised
Requirements for Bibliographic Records. Munich: K.G. Sauer,
1998. 144 p. Also available online at: http://www.ifla.org/VII/s13/frbr/frbr.htm
-----. ISBD (NBM): International Standard Bibliographic
Description for Non-Book Materials. rev. ed. IFLA, 1987.
74 p. Also available online at http://www.ifla.org/VII/s13/pubs/ISBDNBM_sept28_04.pdf
International Organization for Standardization. ISO 8601 Representation
of Dates and Times.
2000, with updates. Description available on-line at http://www.iso.org/iso/en/prods-services/popstds/datesandtime.html.
-----. ISO 3166-1 Country Codes for the Representation
of Names of Countries and Their Subdivisions. 1997, with updates. http://www.iso.ch/iso/en/prods-services/iso3166ma/index.html
International Press Telecommunications Council. IPTC Core
Schema for XMP. Version 1.0, 2005 http://www.iptc.org/IPTC4XMP/ (The
Extensible Metadata Platform (XMP) of the Information Interchange
Model (IIM) used with headers in Photoshop, JPEG, and TIFF image
Library of Congress. OAI Harvestable Records for Digitized Historical
examples of pictorial collections coded in MARC XML, MODS, and
Dublin Core for the Open Archives Initiative.)
Library of Congress. Network Development and MARC Standards Office.
MADS (Metadata Authority Description Schema), Version
1.0, 2005. http://www.loc.gov/standards/mads/.
(Metadata Object Description Schema).
Version 3.3, 2008. http://www.loc.gov/standards/mods/mods-home.html
-----. METS Metadata Encoding & Transmission Standard.
Version 1.6, 2006. http://www.loc.gov/standards/mets/.
National Information Standards Organization. Guidelines
for the Construction, Format, and Management of Monolingual Controlled
Vocabularies. ANSI/NISO Z39.19-2005 and ISO 2788. 172
Petersen, Toni, and Patricia J.
Barnett, eds. Guide to Indexing
and Cataloging with the Art & Architecture
NY: Oxford University Press, 1994. "Published on behalf of the
Getty Art History Information Program."
(See especially Chapter 5 "Archives
and Special Collections," pp.
87-100 and Chapter 8 "Visual
Resources," pp. 163-179.)
Porter, Vicki, and Thornes, Robin. A Guide to the Description
of Architectural Drawings. New York: G.K. Hall, 1994.
324 p. Also available online at http://www.getty.edu/research/conducting_research/standards/fda/index.html
Research Libraries Group.Descriptive
Metadata Guidelines for RLG Cultural Materials.
Mountain View, Calif.: RLG, 2005. 144 p. http://www.oclc.org/programs/ourwork/past/culturalmaterials/RLG_desc_metadata.pdf.
Special Libraries Association.
"Text and Photo Database Enhancement
In 1998, the News's Division's Photo Archiving Task Force approved
a list of almost
for digital newsphoto archives.
In 1999, several newspapers posted
their indexing lists online.
Taxonomy Warehouse. Copyright 2006 by Dow Jones Reuters Business Interactive. http://www.taxonomywarehouse.com/
Thornes, Robin. Introduction to Object ID: Guidelines for
Making Records that Describe Art, Antiques, and Antiquities.
Getty Information Institute, 1999. 72 p. (Outlines the minimum
needed to identify stolen art objects.) Also available online at http://www.object-id.com/guide/guide_index.html
Visual Resources Association. Core
Categories for Visual Resources, Version 4.0, 2007. http://www.vraweb.org/projects/vracore4/index.html
-----. Cataloging Cultural Objects: A Guide to Describing
Cultural Works and Their Images.
Chicago: American Library Association, 2006. 396 p. Sections available online at: http://vraweb.org/ccoweb/cco/index.html
Walsh, Victoria I., comp. Standards for Archival Description:
A Handbook. Chicago: Society of American Archivists,
1994. Also available online at http://www.archivists.org/catalog/stds99/index.html
Alexander, Arden, and Tracy Meehleib. "The Thesaurus
for Graphic Materials: Its History, Use, and Future"
in Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 31: 3/4
Arms, Caroline R. "Getting the Picture: Observations from
the Library of Congress on Providing Online Access to Pictorial
Trends 48: 2 (Fall 1999): 379-409. Also available online
Baca, Murtha, ed. Introduction to Art Image Access: Issues,
Tools, Standards, Strategies. Los Angeles, CA: Getty
Research Institute, 2002. 80 p. Also available online at http://www.getty.edu/research/conducting_research/standards/intro_aia/
Brown, Stephanie Willen, "Indexing Photographs: Presentation
at the 1998 Visual Edge Seminar," Special Libraries Association,
News Division Web site, http://www.ibiblio.org/slanews/archiving/VE98/presentation.htm
Chittenden, Karen. "Washingtoniana II: Cataloging Architectural,
Design, and Engineering Collections in the Prints and Photographs
Division of the Library of Congress," in ArtMARC Sourcebook,
ed. Linda McRae and Lynda S. White. Chicago: American Library
1998, pp. 144-153. (Includes "Data Dictionary" by Anne
Mitchell and Karen Chittenden, pp. 223-263.)
Dooley, Jackie M., and Helena Zinkham. "The Object as 'Subject':
Providing Access to Genres, Forms of Materials, and Physical Characteristics,"
in Beyond the Book: Extending MARC for Subject Access,
ed. Toni Petersen and Pat Molholt. Boston, MA: G.K. Hall, 1990,
Gordon, Andrew S. "The Design
of Knowledge-Rich Browsing Interfaces
for Retrieval in Digital Libraries."
Ph.D. Diss., Northwestern University,
Hagler, Ronald. The Bibliographic Record and Information
Technology. 3rd ed. Chicago: American Library Association,
1997. 394 p.
Jörgensen, Corinne. "Image Indexing: An Analysis of
Selected Classification Systems in Relation to Image Attributes
Named by Naïve Users," Annual Review of OCLC Research, 1999. http://digitalarchive.oclc.org/da/ViewObject.jsp?objid=0000003507
Klijn, Edwin, and Yola de Lusenet. SEPIADES: Cataloguing
Photographic Collections. Amsterdam: European Commission
on Preservation and Access, 2004. 49 p. Also available online
-----. In the Picture: Preservation
and Digitisation of European Photographic Collections.
Amsterdam: European Commission on Preservation and Access,
2000. 69 p. Also available
online at http://www.knaw.nl/ecpa/sepia/publications.html
Lanzi, Elisa. Introduction to Vocabularies: Enhancing Access
to Cultural Heritage Information. Getty Information Institute,
1998. 70 p. Also available
online at http://www.getty.edu/research/conducting_research/vocabularies/introvocabs/.
McRae, Linda, and Lynda S. White, ed. ArtMARC Sourcebook:
Cataloging Art, Architecture, and Their Surrogate Images.
Chicago: American Library Association, 1998. 287 p.
Orbach, Barbara. "Integrating Concepts: Corporate Main Entry
and Graphic Materials," Cataloging & Classification
8:2 (1987/88): 71-89.
Orbach, Barbara. "So That Others May See: Tools for Cataloging
Still Images," Cataloging & Classification Quarterly
11:3/4 (1990): 163-191.
Rouse, Sarah. Into the Light: An Illustrated Guide to the
Photograph Collections in the National Library of Ireland.
Dublin: National Library of Ireland, 1998. 120 p.
Rorvig, Mark E., ed. "Intellectual Access to Graphic Information,"
Library Trends 38/4 (1990), special issue, pp. 639-818.
Shatford, Sara. "Analyzing the Subject of a Picture: A Theoretical
Approach," Cataloging & Classification Quarterly
6:3 (1986): 39-62.
Shatford, Sara. "Describing a Picture: A Thousand Words are Seldom
Cost Effective," Cataloging & Classification Quarterly
4:4 (1984): 13-30.
Stam, Deirdre, and Angela Giral, eds. "Linking Art Objects and
Art Information," Library Trends 37/2 (1988), special
issue, pp. 117-264.
Vogt-O'Connor, Diane. Guide to Photographic Collections
at the Smithsonian Institution. Washington, DC: Smithsonian
Institution Press, 1989-1995. 4 vol.
Zinkham, Helena. Guide to Print, Photograph, Architecture
& Ephemera Collections at The New-York Historical Society.
New York: The Society, 1998. 175 p.
See the document called Standards
Related to Digital Imaging of Pictorial Materials (PDF file)
for a list of organizations that develop standards; citations
to specific standards for digitization, file formats, storage
and information about scanning targets
Arms, Caroline. "Keeping Memory Alive: Practices for Preserving
Digital Content at the National Digital Library Program of the
of Congress." RLG DigiNews 4 (June 15, 2000)
Besser, Howard. Introduction to Imaging.
ed. Sally Hubbard with Deborah Lenert. Rev. ed. Los Angeles:
Getty Research Institute, 2003.
Also available online at http://www.getty.edu/research/conducting_research/standards/introimages/index.html
Blatner, David, and Bruce Fraser. Real World Photoshop 7:
Industrial Strength Production Techniques. Berkeley, CA:
Peachpit Press, 2002. 864 p.
Canadian Heritage Information Network. Creating and Managing
Digital Content. 2004. http://www.chin.gc.ca/English/Digital_Content/index.html
Collaborative Digitization Program. Digital Toolbox. 1999-
-----. Western States Digital Standards Group. Western States Digital Imaging
Version 1.0, 2003. 41 p. http://www.cdpheritage.org/digital/scanning/documents/WSDIBP_v1.pdf
Cornell University Library. Digital Preservation Management: Implementing
Short-term strategies for Long-term Problems. 2003. http://www.library.cornell.edu/iris/tutorial/dpm/
-----. Moving Theory into Practice:
Digital Imaging Tutorial. 2000-2003. http://www.library.cornell.edu/preservation/tutorial/
Denver Public Library. About the Digitization and Cataloging
Program at the Denver Public Library, a National Endowment for the
Humanities Grant Report, June 2002, modified and updated
for Web presentation April 2003. http://photoswest.org/neh/sum.htm
Ester, Michael. Digital Image Collections: Issues and Practice
. Washington, DC: Commission on Preservation and Access, 1996.
Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiative Still Image Working Group. "Technical Guidelines for Digitizing Cultural Heritage Materials: Creation of Raster Image Master Files,"
2010. PDF file available at: http://digitizationguidelines.gov/guidelines/digitize-technical.html
Harvard University. Library
Preservation at Harvard: Resources--Digitization. 2000-
Hurst Associates, Digitization 101 Blog, 2004-present, http://hurstassociates.blogspot.com/
IFLA, ICA, and UNESCO. Guidelines for Digitization Projects
for Collections and Holding in the Public Domain, Particularly
Those Held by Libraries and Archives. March 2002. 59 p. http://www.ifla.org/VII/s19/pubs/digit-guide.pdf
(April 23, 2003)
Kenney, Anne R., and Oya Y. Rieger. Moving Theory Into Practice:
Digital Imaging for Libraries and Archives. Mountain View,
CA: Research Libraries Group, 2000.
Library of Congress. National Digital Library Program. Building
Digital Collections: A Technical Overview. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/about/techIn.html (Includes
"Request for Proposal RFP 97-9: Conversion
Pictorial Materials" ... and "Recommendations for the Evaluation
of Digital Images Produced from Photographic, Micrographic, and
Various Paper Formats," by James
Reilly and Franziska Frey, Image Permanence Institute. The 1997
" National Digital Library Project Planning Checklist" is
available at http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/techdocs/prjplan.html.)
McClung, Patricia A., ed. RLG Digital Image Access Project:
Proceedings from an RLG Symposium Held March 31 and April 1,
Palo Alto, California. Mountain View, CA: Research
Libraries Group, 1995. 104 p.
National Initiative for a Networked Cultural Heritage (NINCH) and
Humanities Advanced Technology and Information Institute (HATII),
University of Glasgow. NINCH Guide to Good Practice in the
Digital Representation and Management of Cultural Heritage Materials.
Northeast Documentation and Conservation Center (NEDCC). Handbook
for Digital Projects: A Management Tool for Preservation and Access.
” Copyright 2000. http://www.nedcc.org/digital/intro.htm
Ostrow, Stephen E. Digitizing Historical Pictorial Collections
for the Internet. Washington, DC: Council on Library
and Information Resources, 1998. 36 p. Also available online
Puglia, Steven, Jeffrey Reed, and Erin Rhodes. Technical
Guidelines for Digitizing Archival Materials for Electronic Access:
of Production Master Files – Raster Images. Washington,
DC: U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, 2004. 87
Reilly, James M., and Franziska S. Frey. Digital Imaging
for Photographic Collections: Foundations for Technical Standards.
Rochester, NY: Image Permanence Institute, Rochester Institute
Technology, 1999. 52 p. Also available online at http://www.imagepermanenceinstitute.org/sub_pages/digibook.pdf
Research Libraries Group and Digital Library Federation. Guides
to Quality in Visual Resource Imaging. 2000.
http://www.rlg.org/visguides/ (Separate guides cover planning,
scanner selection, image quality factors, and digital master quality
and file formats.)
Sandore, Beth, ed. "Progress in Visual Information Access and
Retrieval," in Library Trends 48/2 (1999), special
issue, pp. 283-524. (Includes articles on visual indexing by color,
texture, and layout.)
Stokes, John R. "Imaging Pictorial Collections at the Library
of Congress." RLG DigiNews 3:2 (April 15, 1999).
Technical Advisory Service for Images (TASI). Home Page. http://www.tasi.ac.uk/index.html
University of California, Berkeley. Digital Library Project. Computer
Vision Meets Digital Libraries.
http://dlp.cs.berkeley.edu/vision.html (Includes Blobworld
and other image retrieval based on visual characteristics.)
ONLINE REFERENCE COLLECTIONS
Go to Online Reference Sources for Cataloging
Visual Materials for
a list of additional Web sites useful for verifying information
about creators and subjects of pictures; also, tools for converting
dates and measurements
and for identifying or dating different media.
Librarians' Internet Index. Berkeley, CA: early
1990s- . http://lii.org/ ("A searchable, annotated subject directory of more than 12,000
Internet resources selected and evaluated by librarians for their
usefulness to users of public libraries.")
University of California, Los Angeles. UCLA Catalogers' Reference
Shelf. Los Angeles: last updated May 2004. http://www.library.ucla.edu/libraries/cataloging/refs.htm
University of Michigan School of Information. Internet Public
Library. Ann Arbor, MI: 1995- . http://www.ipl.org/
("An annotated collection of high quality Internet resources,
selected by IPL staff for their usefulness in providing accurate,
factual information on a particular topic or topics.")
Try the same search query in several catalogs to gauge the strengths
and weaknesses of their access designs and description practices.
Pick your own terms or use some of these:
| sunrises & sunsets
hammer & sickle
good & evil
Battle of Gettysburg
Go to Picture Catalogs Online for
a list of more than 50 sites that provide access to historical,
Compiled by: Helena Zinkham, Head, Technical
Services Section, Prints and Photographs Division, July 2000.
revised: March 2008.