The Liberty Window
At its initial meeting in September 1774 Congress invited the Reverend
Jacob Duché (1738-1798), rector of Christ Church, Philadelphia, to open its sessions with prayer. Duché
ministered to Congress in an unofficial capacity until he was elected the body's first chaplain
on July 9, 1776. He defected to the British the next year. Pictured here in the bottom
stained-glass panel is the first prayer in Congress, delivered by Duché. The top part of this
extraordinary stained glass window depicts the role of churchmen in compelling King John to
sign the Magna Carta in 1215.
The Prayer in the First Congress, A.D. 1774
Stained glass and lead, from The Liberty Window, Christ Church, Philadelphia, after a
painting by Harrison Tompkins Matteson, c. 1848
Courtesy of the Rector, Church Wardens and Vestrymen of Christ Church, Philadelphia (101)
George Duffield, Congressional Chaplain
On October 1, 1777, after Jacob Duché, Congress's first chaplain, defected to the British,
Congress appointed joint chaplains: William White (1748-1836), Duché's successor at Christ
Church, Philadelphia, and George Duffield (1732-1790), pastor of the Third Presbyterian
Church of Philadelphia. By appointing chaplains of different denominations, Congress
expressed a revolutionary egalitarianism in religion and its desire to prevent any single
denomination from monopolizing government patronage. This policy was followed by the first
Congress under the Constitution which on April 15, 1789, adopted a joint resolution requiring
that the practice be continued.
Oil on canvas by Charles Peale Polk, 1790
Independence National Historical Park Collection, Philadelphia (103)
Military Chaplains Pay
This resolution directed that military chaplains, appointed in abundance by Congress during
the Revolutionary War, were paid at the rate of a major in the Continental Army.
Congressional resolution, paying military personnel [left page] - [right page]
Broadside, April 22, 1782
Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (102)
Proposed Seal for the United States
On July 4, 1776, Congress appointed Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson and John Adams
"to bring in a device for a seal for the United States of America." Franklin's proposal adapted
the biblical story of the parting of the Red Sea (left). Jefferson first recommended the
"Children of Israel in the Wilderness, led by a Cloud by Day, and a Pillar of Fire by night. . .
." He then embraced Franklin's proposal and rewrote it (right). Jefferson's revision of
Franklin's proposal was presented by the committee to Congress on August 20. Although not
accepted these drafts reveal the religious temper of the Revolutionary period. Franklin and
Jefferson were among the most theologically liberal of the Founders, yet they used biblical
imagery for this important task.
Legend for the Seal of the United States, August 1776 [left side] - [right side]
Holograph notes, Benjamin Franklin (left) and Thomas Jefferson (right)
Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (104-105)
Proposed Great Seal of the United States:
"Rebellion to Tyrants is Obedience to God." Drawing
by Benson Lossing, for Harper's New Monthly Magazine, July 1856.
General Collections, Library of Congress. (106)
Congressional Fast Day Proclamation
Congress proclaimed days of fasting and of thanksgiving annually throughout the
Revolutionary War. This proclamation by Congress set May 17, 1776, as a "day of
Humiliation, Fasting and Prayer" throughout the colonies. Congress urges its fellow citizens
to "confess and bewail our manifold sins and transgressions, and by a sincere repentance and
amendment of life, appease his [God's] righteous displeasure, and through the merits and
mediation of Jesus Christ, obtain his pardon and forgiveness." Massachusetts ordered a
"suitable Number" of these proclamations be printed so "that each of the religious Assemblies
in this Colony, may be furnished with a Copy of the same" and added the motto "God Save
This People" as a substitute for "God Save the King."
Congressional Fast Day Proclamation, March 16, 1776
Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (107)
Congressional Thanksgiving Day Proclamation
Congress set December 18, 1777, as a day of thanksgiving on which the American people
"may express the grateful feelings of their hearts and consecrate themselves to the service of
their divine benefactor" and on which they might "join the penitent confession of their
manifold sins . . . that it may please God, through the merits of Jesus Christ, mercifully to
forgive and blot them out of remembrance." Congress also recommends that Americans
petition God "to prosper the means of religion for the promotion and enlargement of that
kingdom which consisteth in righteousness, peace and joy in the Holy Ghost.'"
Congressional Thanksgiving Day Proclamation, November 1, 1777
Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (108)
The 1779 Fast Day Proclamation
Here is the most eloquent of the Fast and Thanksgiving Day Proclamations.
Congressional Fast Day Proclamation, March 20, 1779
Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (109)
Another Thanksgiving Day Proclamation
Congress set November 28, 1782, as a day of thanksgiving on which Americans were "to
testify their gratitude to God for his goodness, by a cheerful obedience to his laws, and by
promoting, each in his station, and by his influence, the practice of true and undefiled religion,
which is the great foundation of public prosperity and national happiness."
Congressional Thanksgiving Day Proclamation, October 11, 1782
Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (110)
Morality in the Army
Congress was apprehensive about the moral condition of the American army and navy and
took steps to see that Christian morality prevailed in both organizations. In the Articles of
War, seen below, governing the conduct of the Continental Army (seen above) (adopted, June
30, 1775; revised, September 20, 1776), Congress devoted three of the four articles in the first
section to the religious nurture of the troops. Article 2 "earnestly recommended to all officers
and soldiers to attend divine services." Punishment was prescribed for those who behaved
"indecently or irreverently" in churches, including courts-martial, fines and imprisonments.
Chaplains who deserted their troops were to be court-martialed.
Morality in the Navy
Congress particularly feared the navy as a source of moral corruption and demanded that
skippers of American ships make their men behave. The first article in Rules and Regulations
of the Navy (below), adopted on November 28, 1775, ordered all commanders "to be very
vigilant . . . to discountenance and suppress all dissolute, immoral and disorderly practices."
The second article required those same commanders "to take care, that divine services be
performed twice a day on board, and a sermon preached on Sundays." Article 3 prescribed
punishments for swearers and blasphemers: officers were to be fined and common sailors were
to be forced "to wear a wooden collar or some other shameful badge of distinction."
Extracts from the Journals of Congress,
relative to the Capture and Condemnation of Prizes,
and filling out Privateers, together with the Rules and Regulations of the Navy,
Instructions to Private Ships of War [page 16] - [page 17]
Philadelphia: John Dunlap, 1776
Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (113)
Commander-in-Chief of the American NavyHorn beaker with scrimshaw portrait of Esek Hopkins
Etched on this horn beaker is Esek Hopkins (1718-1802), a Rhode Islander, appointed by
Congress, December 22, 1775, as the first commander-in-chief of the American Navy.
Hopkins was dismissed, January 2, 1778, after a stormy tenure in which he achieved some
notable successes in spite of almost insuperable problems in manning the tiny American fleet.
Horn, c. 1876
Mariner's Museum, Newport News, Virginia (114)
Aitken's Bible Endorsed by Congress
The war with Britain cut off the supply of Bibles to the United States with the result that on
Sept. 11, 1777, Congress instructed its Committee of Commerce to import 20,000 Bibles from
"Scotland, Holland or elsewhere." On January 21, 1781, Philadelphia printer Robert Aitken
(1734-1802) petitioned Congress to officially sanction a publication of the Old and New
Testament which he was preparing at his own expense. Congress "highly approve the pious
and laudable undertaking of Mr. Aitken, as subservient to the interest of religion . . . in this
country, and . . . they recommend this edition of the bible to the inhabitants of the United
States." This resolution was a result of Aitken's successful accomplishment of his project.
Congressional resolution, September 12, 1782, endorsing Robert Aitken's Bible [page 468] -- [page 469]
Philadelphia: David C. Claypoole, 1782 from the Journals of Congress
Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (115)
Aitken published Congress's recommendation of September 1782 and related documents (Item
115) as an imprimatur on the two pages following his title page. Aitken's Bible, published
under Congressional patronage, was the first English language Bible published on the North
The Holy Bible, Containing the Old and New Testaments: Newly translated out of the Original
Tongues. . . .
Philadelphia: printed and sold by R. Aitken, 1782
Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (116)
Settling the West
In the spring of 1785 Congress debated regulations for settling the new western lands--stretching from the Alleghenies to the Mississippi--acquired from Great Britain in the Peace
Treaty of 1783. It was proposed that the central section in each newly laid out township be
reserved for the support of schools and "the Section immediately adjoining the same to the
northward, for the support of religion. The profits arising there from in both instances, to be
applied for ever according to the will of the majority." The proposal to establish religion in
the traditional sense of granting state financial support to a church to be controlled by one
denomination attracted support but was ultimately voted down.
An Ordinance for ascertaining the Mode of disposing of Lands in the Western Territory, 1785.
Broadside, Continental Congress, 1785
Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (117)
In the summer of 1787 Congress revisited the issue of religion in the new western territories
and passed, July 13, 1787, the famous Northwest Ordinance. Article 3 of the Ordinance
contained the following language: "Religion, Morality and knowledge being necessary to good
government and the happiness of mankind, Schools and the means of education shall be
forever encouraged." Scholars have been puzzled that, having declared religion and morality
indispensable to good government, Congress did not, like some of the state governments that
had written similar declarations into their constitutions, give financial assistance to the
churches in the West.
An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States, North-West of the
River Ohio, 1787
Broadside, Continental Congress, 1787
Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (118)
Christianizing the Delawares
In this resolution, Congress makes public lands available to a group for religious purposes.
Responding to a plea from Bishop John Ettwein (1721-1802), Congress voted that 10,000
acres on the Muskingum River in the present state of Ohio "be set apart and the property
thereof be vested in the Moravian Brethren . . . or a society of the said Brethren for civilizing
the Indians and promoting Christianity." The Delaware Indians were the intended
beneficiaries of this Congressional resolution.
Resolution granting lands to Moravian Brethren. [left page] - [right page]
Records of the Continental Congress in the
Constitutional Convention, July 27, 1787
National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C. (119)
A Delaware-English Spelling Book
David Zeisberger (1721-1802) was a famous Moravian missionary who spent much of his life
working with the Delaware Indians. His Spelling Book contains a "Short History of the
Bible," in the English and Delaware languages, on facing pages.
Delaware Indian and English Spelling Book for the Schools of the Mission
of the United Brethren [left page] - [right page]
Philadelphia: Mary Cist, 1806
Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (120)