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Statistics & Lists: Freshman Senators

Learn who the freshman senators were each Congress since 1914. The table includes appointments that occurred just before (November and December) or after (within one month) the opening of Congress.

About Senate Classes

Image of Tristram Dalton
Tristram Dalton (MA)

Article I, section 3 of the Constitution requires the Senate to be divided into three classes for purposes of elections. Senators are elected to six-year terms, and every two years the members of one class—approximately one-third of the senators—face election or reelection. Terms for senators in Class I expire in 2013, Class II in 2015, and Class III in 2017.

Learn about how classes were first assigned.

Virtual Reference Desk

Vice President Richard Nixon administers the oath of office to Senator Gale McGee.
Vice President Richard Nixon administers the oath of office to Senator Gale McGee, 1959.

The Virtual Reference Desk  (VRD) organizes Senate information by subject and provides links to related materials.

Traditions is one of more than 50 VRD categories. On this VRD page there are links to information about the oath of office, choosing seats, Seersucker Thursday, Senate bean soup, and much more.


Find Committee Hearings

Transcripts of hearings may be available on a committee Web site, from the Government Printing Office, or from a federal depository library.  Learn how to find Committee Hearings.

Find publications

Some congressional and other government publications can be found on GPO-FDSYS,in a Federal Depository Library, or purchased from the GPO bookstore.

Find Bill Numbers

You need a bill or public law number to check the status of or request a copy of legislation. This How to guide will assist you.