Structured Abstracts in
Skip Navigation



NLM Research



      Structured Abstracts Logo - sample citation with labels highlighted This Structured Abstracts in MEDLINE® resource provides information about U.S. National Library of Medicine® (NLM®) research on Structured Abstracts:
  • Structured abstracts contain distinct labeled sections for key information from articles they summarize.

  • Recent NLM research on structured abstracts revealed that a quarter of all abstracts currently added to MEDLINE include section labels such as BACKGROUND, OBJECTIVE, METHODS, RESULTS, and CONCLUSIONS.

  • In August 2010, structured abstracts in PubMed were reformatted for easier readability.

  • The 2011 NLMMedlineCitationSet DTD and MEDLINE/PubMed XML accommodate structured abstracts as a part of NLM data dissemination so that licensees can manipulate the display and searching of structured abstracts.

  • Updated NLM-legitimate labels file - Updated Icon August 31, 2012: An updated list of NLM-legitimate labels and their broader category mappings is freely available by downloading from this site. See Implementation Information for documentation.

Contact NLM: Your comments and questions are welcome.
Please put "Structured Abstracts" in the subject box.
Last Modified: September 10, 2012 ii-public2
     Copyright    |   Privacy    |   Accessibility    |   Freedom of Information Act    |    Get Acrobat Reader button
Links to Our Sites
MetaMap Public Release
NEW: Distributable version of the actual MetaMap program.
Indexing Initiative (II)
Investigating computer-assisted and fully automatic methodologies for indexing biomedical text. Includes the NLM Medical Text Indexer (MTI).
Semantic Knowledge Representation (SKR)
Develop programs to provide usable semantic representation of biomedical text. Includes the MetaMap and SemRep programs.
MetaMap Transfer (MMTx)
Java-Based distributable version of the MetaMap program.
Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD)
Test collection of manually curated MetaMap ambiguity resolution in support of word sense disambiguation research.
MEDLINE Baseline Repository (MBR)
Static MEDLINE® Baselines for use in research involving biomedical citations. Allows for query searches and test collection creation.
Structured Abstracts (SA)
Information about NLM's research on Structured Abstracts in the MEDLINE® Baselines.
Lister Hill Center Homepage Link - Image of Lister Hill Center Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications   NLM Homepage Link - NLM Logo U.S. National Library of Medicine   NIH Homepage Link - NIH Logo National Institutes of Health
DHHS Homepage Link - DHHS Logo Department of Health and Human Services