Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT)
Clinical Trials URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/...
Study Type: Clinical Trial
Prepared on April 22, 2010
Study Dates: August 1993 - March 2002
Consent: Unrestricted Consent
Commercial Use Restrictions: No
Collection Type: Open BioLINCC Study - See bottom of this webpage for request information
Hypertension Study: To determine whether treatment with a calcium channel blocker or an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor lowers the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) or other cardiovascular disease (CVD) events vs treatment with a diuretic.
Lipid Study: To determine whether pravastatin compared with usual care reduces all-cause mortality in older, moderately hypercholesterolemic, hypertensive participants with at least 1 additional CHD risk factor.
Hypertension Study: Antihypertensive therapy is well established to reduce hypertension-related morbidity and mortality, but the optimal first-step therapy is unknown.
Lipid Study: Studies have demonstrated that statins administered to individuals with risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) reduce CHD events. However, many of these studies were too small to assess all-cause mortality or outcomes in important subgroups.
Hypertension Study: A total of 33 357 participants aged 55 years or older with hypertension and at least 1 other CHD risk factor from 623 North American centers.
Lipid Study: Ambulatory persons (n = 10 355), aged 55 years or older, with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) of 120 to 189 mg/dL (100 to 129 mg/dL if known CHD) and triglycerides lower than 350 mg/dL, were randomized to pravastatin (n = 5170) or to usual care (n = 5185). Baseline mean total cholesterol was 224 mg/dL; LDL-C, 146 mg/dL; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 48 mg/dL; and triglycerides, 152 mg/dL. Mean age was 66 years, 49% were women, 38% black and 23% Hispanic, 14% had a history of CHD, and 35% had type 2 diabetes.
Hypertension Study: A randomized, double-blind, active-controlled clinical trial conducted from February 1994 through March 2002. Participants were randomly assigned to receive chlorthalidone, 12.5 to 25 mg/d (n = 15 255); amlodipine, 2.5 to 10 mg/d (n = 9048); or lisinopril, 10 to 40 mg/d (n = 9054) for planned follow-up of approximately 4 to 8 years. The primary outcome was combined fatal CHD or nonfatal myocardial infarction, analyzed by intent-to-treat. Secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality, stroke, combined CHD (primary outcome, coronary revascularization, or angina with hospitalization), and combined CVD (combined CHD, stroke, treated angina without hospitalization, heart failure [HF], and peripheral arterial disease).
Lipid Study: Multicenter (513 primarily community-based North American clinical centers), randomized, nonblinded trial conducted from 1994 through March 2002 in a subset of participants from the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). The interventions in the trial were pravastatin, 40 mg/d, vs usual care. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality, with follow-up for up to 8 years. Secondary outcomes included nonfatal myocardial infarction or fatal CHD (CHD events) combined, cause-specific mortality, and cancer.
Hypertension Study: Thiazide-type diuretics are superior in preventing 1 or more major forms of CVD and are less expensive. They should be preferred for first-step antihypertensive therapy.
Lipid Study: Pravastatin did not reduce either all-cause mortality or CHD significantly when compared with usual care in older participants with well-controlled hypertension and moderately elevated LDL-C. The results may be due to the modest differential in total cholesterol (9.6%) and LDL-C (16.7%) between pravastatin and usual care compared with prior statin trials supporting cardiovascular disease prevention.
The ALLHAT Officers and Coordinators for the ALLHAT Collaborative Research Group. Major Outcomes in High-Risk Hypertensive Patients Randomized to Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor or Calcium Channel Blocker vs Diuretic: The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). JAMA, Dec 2002; 288: 2981 - 2997.
The ALLHAT Officers and Coordinators for the ALLHAT Collaborative Research Group. Major Outcomes in Moderately Hypercholesterolemic, Hypertensive Patients Randomized to Pravastatin vs Usual Care: The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT-LLT). JAMA, Dec 2002; 288: 2998 - 3007.