The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) preserves and promotes
public confidence in the U.S. financial system by insuring deposits
in banks and thrift institutions for at least $250,000; by identifying,
monitoring and addressing risks to the deposit insurance funds;
and by limiting the effect on the economy and the financial system when
a bank or thrift institution fails.
An independent agency of the federal government, the FDIC was created
in 1933 in response to the thousands of bank failures that occurred in the
1920s and early 1930s. Since the start of FDIC insurance on January 1, 1934,
no depositor has lost a single cent of insured funds as a result of a failure.
The FDIC receives no Congressional appropriations – it is funded by premiums that banks and thrift institutions pay for deposit insurance coverage and from earnings on investments in U.S. Treasury securities. The FDIC insures approximately $9 trillion of deposits in U.S. banks and thrifts – deposits in virtually every bank and thrift in the country.
The standard insurance amount is $250,000 per depositor, per insured bank, for each account ownership category. The FDIC's Electronic
Deposit Insurance Estimator can help you determine if you have adequate deposit
insurance for your accounts.
The FDIC insures deposits only. It does not insure securities, mutual
funds or similar types of investments that banks and thrift institutions
may offer. (Insured
and Uninsured Investments distinguishes between what
is and is not protected by FDIC insurance.)
The FDIC directly examines and supervises more than 4,500 banks and savings banks for operational safety and soundness, more than half of the institutions in the banking system. Banks can be chartered by the states or by the federal government. Banks chartered by states also have the choice of whether to join the Federal Reserve System. The FDIC is the primary federal regulator of banks that are chartered by the states that do not join the Federal Reserve System. In addition, the FDIC is the back-up supervisor for the remaining insured banks and thrift institutions.
The FDIC also examines banks for compliance with consumer protection laws, including the Fair Credit Billing Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Truth-In-Lending Act, and the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, to name a few. Finally, the FDIC examines banks for compliance with the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) which requires banks to help meet the credit needs of the communities they were chartered to serve.
To protect insured depositors, the FDIC responds immediately when a
bank or thrift institution fails. Institutions generally are closed
by their chartering authority – the state regulator, or the Office of the Comptroller
of the Currency. The FDIC has several
options for resolving institution failures, but the one most used is to sell
deposits and loans of the failed institution to another institution. Customers
of the failed institution automatically become customers of the assuming
institution. Most of the time, the transition is seamless from the customer's
point of view.
The FDIC employs more than 7,000 people. It is headquartered in Washington, D.C., but conducts much of its business in six regional offices, one temporary satellite office and in field offices around the country.
The FDIC is managed by a five-person Board
of Directors, all of whom
are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate, with no more
than three being from the same political party.