Through the use of tobacco, nicotine is one of the most heavily used addictive drugs and the leading preventable cause of disease, disability, and death in the U.S. Cigarette smoking accounts for 90% of lung cancer cases in the U.S., and about 38,000 deaths per year can be attributed to secondhand smoke. Cigarettes and chew tobacco are illegal substances in most U.S. states for those under 18; a handful of states have raised the age to 19.
Nicotine is highly addictive. The tar in cigarettes increases a smoker's risk of lung cancer, emphysema, and bronchial disorders. The carbon monoxide in smoke increases the chance of cardiovascular diseases. Pregnant smokers have a higher risk of miscarriage or low birthweight babies. Secondhand smoke causes lung cancer in adults and greatly increases the risk of respiratory illnesses in children.
Statistics and Trends
In 2009, nearly 70 million Americans age 12 and older had used a tobacco product at least once in the month prior to being surveyed. Source: National Survey on Drug Use and Health (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration Web Site). The NIDA-funded 2010 Monitoring the Future Study showed that 7.1% of 8th graders, 13.6% of 10th graders, and 19.2% of 12th graders had used cigarettes and 4.1% of 8th graders, 7.5% of 10th graders, and 8.5% of 12th graders had used smokeless tobacco at least once in the month prior to being surveyed. And while rates of smoking have been declining since the mid-nineties, those declines have been slowing in the last two years. Source: Monitoring the Future (University of Michigan Web Site).
- Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study (PATH) - A national longitudinal study of tobacco use and how it affects the health of people in the United States, led by NIDA and the Food and Drug Administration
- Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence Guidelines
- NIDA for Teens: Tobacco Addiction
- Guidance for Parents on Keeping Kids Smoke-Free (Letter from NIDA's former director) (Archives)
- Tobacco Regulatory Science Program (TRSP) (NIH/FDA collaboration)
- Prevent and Reduce Tobacco Use (HHS Secretary)
- Online Guide to Quit Smoking (NCI)
- The Virtual Office of the Surgeon General - Guidelines to Quit Smoking
- Transdisciplinary Tobacco Use Research Centers - NIDA, the National Cancer Institute, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation: Studying new ways to combat tobacco use
Get more information on K2/Spice, Salvia and Bath Salts. NIDA will update this page with the latest research findings on these and other emerging drugs as they develop.
Looking for Treatment?
Use the SAMHSA Treatment Locator or 1-800-662-HELP.
As a result of scientific research, we know that addiction is a disease that affects both brain and behavior.