U.S. National Institute of Health www.cancer.gov National Cancer Institute
National Cancer Institute
Skip Header Navigation
Skip Navigation


  1. Adami, C., Information theory in molecular biology. Phys Life Rev, 2004. 1(2004): p. 3-22.
  2. Adami, C., Digital genetics: unravelling the genetic basis of evolution. Nat Rev Genet, 2006. 7(2): p. 109-18.
  3. Alberts, B., The cell as a collection of protein machines: preparing the next generation of molecular biologists. Cell, 1998. 92(3): p. 291-4.
  4. Bissell, M.J. and M.A. Labarge, Context, tissue plasticity, and cancer: are tumor stem cells also regulated by the microenvironment? Cancer Cell, 2005. 7(1): p. 17-23.
  5. Bonci, D., et al., The miR-15a-miR-16-1 cluster controls prostate cancer by targeting multiple oncogenic activities. Nat Med, 2008. 14(11): p. 1271-7.
  6. Chin, S.F., et al., High-resolution aCGH and expression profiling identifies a novel genomic subtype of ER negative breast cancer. Genome Biol, 2007. 8(10): p. R215.
  7. Coffey, D.S., Self-organization, complexity and chaos: the new biology for medicine. Nat Med, 1998. 4(8): p. 882-5.
  8. Coffey, D.S., Understanding the cancer biology universe: enigmas, context and future prospects. Cancer Biol Ther, 2002. 1(5): p. 564-7.
  9. Dykxhoorn, D.M., C.D. Novina, and P.A. Sharp, Killing the messenger: short RNAs that silence gene expression. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 2003. 4(6): p. 457-67.
  10. Folkman, J., P. Hahnfeldt, and L. Hlatky, Cancer: looking outside the genome. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 2000. 1(1): p. 76-9.
  11. Gatenby, R.A. and B.R. Frieden, Information theory in living systems, methods, applications, and challenges. Bull Math Biol, 2007. 69(2): p. 635-57.
  12. Gerlich, D., et al., Global chromosome positions are transmitted through mitosis in mammalian cells. Cell, 2003. 112(6): p. 751-64.
  13. Heng, H.H., Cancer genome sequencing: the challenges ahead. Bioessays, 2007. 29(8): p. 783-94.
  14. Heng, H.H., The conflict between complex systems and reductionism. JAMA, 2008. 300(13): p. 1580-1.
  15. Hillis, W.D., Why physicists like models and why biologists should. Curr Biol, 1993. 3(2): p. 79-81.
  16. Jacob, F. and J. Monod, Genetic regulatory mechanisms in the synthesis of proteins. J Mol Biol, 1961. 3: p. 318-56.
  17. Johnson, D.H., et al., Information-theoretic analysis of neural coding. J Comput Neurosci, 2001. 10(1): p. 47-69.
  18. Kirchhamer, C.V., L.D. Bogarad, and E.H. Davidson, Developmental expression of synthetic cis-regulatory systems composed of spatial control elements from two different genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1996. 93(24): p. 13849-54.
  19. Lagos-Quintana, M., et al., Identification of novel genes coding for small expressed RNAs. Science, 2001. 294(5543): p. 853-8.
  20. Lau, N.C., et al., An abundant class of tiny RNAs with probable regulatory roles in Caenorhabditis elegans. Science, 2001. 294(5543): p. 858-62.
  21. Lee, R.C. and V. Ambros, An extensive class of small RNAs in Caenorhabditis elegans. Science, 2001. 294(5543): p. 862-4.
  22. Lee, R.C., R.L. Feinbaum, and V. Ambros, The C. elegans heterochronic gene lin-4 encodes small RNAs with antisense complementarity to lin-14. Cell, 1993. 75(5): p. 843-54.
  23. Lippincott-Schwartz, J., Dynamics of secretory membrane trafficking. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 2004. 1038: p. 115-24.
  24. Lyakhov, I.G., A. Krishnamachari, and T.D. Schneider, Discovery of novel tumor suppressor p53 response elements using information theory. Nucleic Acids Res, 2008. 36(11): p. 3828-33.
  25. Ma, J., et al., The infinite sites model of genome evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2008. 105(38): p. 14254-61.
  26. Misteli, T., Beyond the sequence: cellular organization of genome function. Cell, 2007. 128(4): p. 787-800.
  27. Morin, R.D., et al., Application of massively parallel sequencing to microRNA profiling and discovery in human embryonic stem cells. Genome Res, 2008. 18(4): p. 610-21.
  28. Mumm, J.P., A. Landy, and J. Gelles, Viewing single lambda site-specific recombination events from start to finish. EMBO J, 2006. 25(19): p. 4586-95.
  29. Neilson, J.R. and P.A. Sharp, Small RNA regulators of gene expression. Cell, 2008. 134(6): p. 899-902.
  30. Network, C.G.A.R., Comprehensive genomic characterization defines human glioblastoma genes and core pathways. Nature, 2008. 455(7216): p. 1061-8.
  31. Phillips, R., J. Kondev, and J. Theriot, Physical biology of the cell. 2009, New York: Garland Science. xxiv, 807 p.
  32. Phillips, R. and Q.S. R., The biological frontier of physics. Phys Today, 2006. 59(5): p. 38-43.
  33. Poirier, M.G., et al., Spontaneous access to DNA target sites in folded chromatin fibers. J Mol Biol, 2008. 379(4): p. 772-86.
  34. Rafelski, S.M. and W.F. Marshall, Building the cell: design principles of cellular architecture. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 2008. 9(8): p. 593-602.
  35. Shannon, C.E., A mathematical theory of communication. Bell Syst Tech J, 1948. 27(July and October): p. 379-423 and 623-656.
  36. Shannon, C.E., Communication in the presence of noise. Proc IRE, 1949. 37(1): p. 10-21.
  37. Shibata, D. and S. Tavare, Counting divisions in a human somatic cell tree: how, what and why? Cell Cycle, 2006. 5(6): p. 610-4.
  38. Small, S., A. Blair, and M. Levine, Regulation of even-skipped stripe 2 in the Drosophila embryo. EMBO J, 1992. 11(11): p. 4047-57.
  39. Sonnenschein, C. and A.M. Soto, Theories of carcinogenesis: an emerging perspective. Semin Cancer Biol, 2008. 18(5): p. 372-7.
  40. Wightman, B., I. Ha, and G. Ruvkun, Posttranscriptional regulation of the heterochronic gene lin-14 by lin-4 mediates temporal pattern formation in C. elegans. Cell, 1993. 75(5): p. 855-62.


Funding Opportunities
Find out more about funding opportunities available in physical sciences. More
Purple border
News & Events
Read the latest on Physical Sciences in Oncology and related activities. More
Skip Footer Navigation