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    Neurobiol Aging. 2013 Apr;34(4):1051-9. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2012.09.012. Epub 2012 Oct 9.

    Neuroinflammatory phenotype in early Alzheimer's disease.


    Department of Physiology, University of Kentucky Sanders-Brown Center on Aging, Lexington, KY, USA.


    Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves progressive neurodegeneration in the presence of misfolded proteins and poorly-understood inflammatory changes. However, research has shown that AD is genetically, clinically, and pathologically heterogeneous. In frozen brain samples of frontal cortex (diseased) and cerebellum (nondiseased) from the University of Kentucky Alzheimer's Disease Center autopsy cohort, we performed gene expression analysis for genes categorizing inflammatory states (termed M1 and M2) from early and late stage AD, and age-matched nondemented controls. We performed analysis of the serum samples for a profile of inflammatory proteins and examined the neuropathologic data on these samples. Striking heterogeneity was found in early AD. Specifically, early-stage AD brain samples indicated apparent polarization toward either the M1 or M2 brain inflammatory states when compared with age-matched nondisease control tissue. This polarization was observed in the frontal cortex and not in cerebellar tissue. We were able to detect differences in AD neuropathology, and changes in serum proteins that distinguished the individuals with apparent M1 versus M2 brain inflammatory polarization.

    Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    [PubMed - in process]

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