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Respiratory Syncytial Virus Activity — United States, July 2011–January 2013

Respiratory syncytial virus causes lower respiratory infections among infants and young children worldwide.

March 1, 2013 / Vol. 62 / No. 8
CE Available

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Activity — United States, July 2011–January 2013

During 1997–2006, an estimated 132,000–172,000 children aged <5 years were hospitalized for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection annually in the United States. In temperate climate zones, RSV generally circulates during the fall, winter, and spring, but the exact timing and duration of RSV seasons vary by region and year. To determine seasonal trends, CDC analyzed data collected by the National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System. This report summarizes the results of that analysis.

MMWR Recommendations and Reports

March 1, 2013 / Vol. 62 / No. RR–1
Methodology of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System — 2013

The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), established in 1991, monitors six categories of priority health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youths and young adults. YRBSS data are obtained from a national school-based survey conducted by CDC as well as school-based state, territorial, tribal, and large urban school district surveys conducted by education and health agencies. These surveys have been conducted biennially since 1991 and include representative samples of students in grades 9–12. This report updates a description of the YRBSS methodology that was published in 2004 and provides additional information about this surveillance system.

MMWR Surveillance Summaries

December 14, 2012 / Vol. 61 / No. SS–9
Outbreaks of Acute Gastroenteritis Transmitted by Person-to-Person Contact — United States, 2009–2010

Approximately 179 million cases of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) occur in the United States each year, and outbreaks of AGE are a substantial public health problem. Although CDC has conducted national surveillance for waterborne and foodborne AGE outbreaks since 1971 and 1973, respectively, no national surveillance existed for AGE outbreaks resulting primarily from person-to-person transmission before implementation of the National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) in 2009. During 2009–2010, a total of 2,259 person-to-person AGE outbreaks were reported in NORS from 42 states and the District of Columbia. These outbreaks resulted in 81,491 reported illnesses, 1,339 hospitalizations, and 136 deaths. Prevention and control of person-to-person AGE outbreaks depend primarily on appropriate hand hygiene and isolation of ill persons.

MMWR Summary of Notifiable Diseases

June 1, 2012 / Vol. 59 / No. 53
Summary of Notifiable Diseases — United States, 2010

Health-care providers in the United States are required to report certain infectious diseases to a specified state or local authority. A disease is designated as notifiable if timely information about individual cases is considered necessary for prevention and control of the disease. Each year, CDC publishes a summary of the cases of notifiable disease reported for the most recent year for which data is available. This report presents a summary of notifiable diseases for 2010.

MMWR Supplements

August 10, 2012 / Vol. 61 / Supplement
Lead in Drinking Water and Human Blood Lead Levels in the United States

Since 1970, considerable reductions in lead concentrations have occurred in air, tap water, food, dust, and soil, which significantly reduced the BLLs of children throughout the United States. However, children are still being exposed to lead, and no safe blood lead threshold for children has been identified. This review describes a selection of peer-reviewed publications on childhood lead poisoning, sources of lead exposure for adults and children, particularly children aged <6 years, and the Safe Drinking Water Act Lead and Copper Rule of 1991. What is known and unknown about tap water as a source of lead exposure is summarized, and ways that children might be exposed to lead in drinking water are identified. When investigating cases of children with BLLs at or above the reference value established as the 97.5 percentile of the distribution of BLLs in U.S. children aged 1–5 years, drinking water should be considered as a source.

Child and Adult Immunization Scehdules

February 1, 2013 / Vol. 62
Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Recommended Immunization Schedules for Persons Aged 0 Through 18 Years and Adults Aged 19 Years and Older — United States, 2013

Each year, recommendations for routine use of vaccines in children, adolescents, and adults in the United States are developed by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). This year, for the first time, recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years and adults aged 19 years and older are being published together. Health-care providers are advised to use both the recommended schedules for children and adults in combination with their footnotes and not as stand-alones. For guidance on the use of all the vaccines in the schedules, including contraindications and precautions to use of a vaccine, providers are referred to the respective ACIP vaccine recommendations.

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