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Director's Report to the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse
February, 2002


Epidemiologic Trends in Drug Abuse – Community Epidemiology Work Group,
Volume I – June 2001
NIH Pub. No. 01-4916A

This report provides an ongoing assessment of drug abuse in major metropolitan areas of the United States with the purpose of keeping both public and private sector policymakers and researchers informed with current and accurate data.

Epidemiologic Trends in Drug Abuse – Community Epidemiology Work Group,
Volume II – June 2001
NIH Pub. No. 01-4917A

This report provides an in-depth analysis of the epidemiologic trends and special reports for a limited audience made up primarily of drug abuse researchers who utilize this volume to identify potential areas for further research.

NIDA Community Drug Alert Bulletin – Stress & Substance Abuse
NIH Pub. No. 02-5087

Given the heightened reports of increase in substance abuse in times of stress and the well-documented data that establish the connection between increased drug abuse during times of stress, NIDA has developed a new publication on Stress and Drug Abuse as part of its Community Drug Alert Bulletin series. The Alert is part of NIDA's efforts to ensure that clinicians, researchers, and members of the public have the most reliable and timely information available on this topic.

Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research-Based Guide (Spanish) (2001)

This guide provides research-based information about addiction, drug treatment, and recovery for new patients undergoing treatment for addiction, and for their friends and families. It helps guide new patients in getting the most from their treatment and warns about possible difficulties during treatment and recovery.

Inhalant Abuse - Research Report Series (Spanish) (2001)

Based on research on the use and prevalence of inhalants, this report presents information on the types of inhalants, the consequences of their use, who is abusing inhalants, and how to recognize inhalant abuse.

Prescription Drug Abuse - Research Report Series (Spanish) (2001)

This report describes the dangers of prescription drug abuse and reviews recent research in this area. It offers approaches for patients and providers to help them avoid the misuse of prescription drugs. The report reviews most commonly abused prescription drugs.

Native American/Alaska Natives Calendar 2002
NIH Pub. No. 01-4996

This is an intergenerational calendar for Native Americans/Alaska Natives. Through photography, text, and quotations that reinforce Indian identity and pride, the calendar is designed to increase the audience’s knowledge and awareness of the signs, symptoms, and physiological effects of various drugs.


NIDA NOTES, Volume 16, Issue No. 4
NIH Pub. No. 02-3478

This issue contains a special message from the NIDA director about coping with the stress associated with the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Dr. Leshner points out that stress is one of the most powerful triggers for drug craving and relapse to drug abuse and that NIDA is placing a high priority on research on the relationship between stress and drug abuse.

In the Director’s Column, Dr. Leshner describes how NIDA provides appropriate information about drug abuse and addiction to its many audiences.

The cover story reports on the results of a 33-year study of the patterns and consequences of heroin addiction in almost 600 heroin-addicted criminal offenders. The researchers found that the participants’ lives were characterized by increased risk of crime, health problems, and death. Those able to achieve 5 years of abstinence realized major quality-of-life gains. Another story describes a study demonstrating that buprenorphine, a medication developed through NIDA research to treat heroin addiction, is equally effective when taken three times a week as when taken daily. Other stories report on a biochemical abnormality found in the brains of children prenatally exposed to cocaine; similar brain characteristics of drug addicts and individuals with pathological obesity; and how TV public service announcements aimed at sensation-seeking adolescents achieved a reduction in marijuana use in the targeted group. Also included is a report on the 25th anniversary meeting of NIDA’s Community Epidemiology Work Group, accompanied by information about current drug abuse trends across the country. The Tearoff reports on NIDA’s science education products, including “Brain Power!” a program for second-and third-grade students and their teachers.

Other Publications

5th Annual NIDA International Forum
Building International Research on Drug Abuse: Drug Abuse Treatment in the New Millennium

This volume provides summaries of oral presentations, workshops, and discussion sessions; abstracts of oral and poster presentations; the agenda; and a participant list from the June 2000 meeting held in San Juan, Puerto Rico immediately before the Annual Scientific Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence.

Pacific Regional Research Conference on Methamphetamine and Other Amphetamine-Type Stimulants

This volume summarizes the oral presentations and includes the agenda and participant list from this November 2000 meeting cosponsored by NIDA and the Thai Ministry of Public Health to discuss scientific data about the physiological and behavioral effects of these drugs, epidemiological trends, and strategies for prevention and treatment.

NIDA’s International Collaboration and Fellowship Programs

Advises NIDA grantees of opportunities to mentor Fellows or collaborate with scientists from other countries through programs administered by the International Program: INVEST Research Fellowships for postdoctoral drug abuse researchers; NIDA Hubert H. Humphrey Drug Abuse Research Fellowships for international researchers, treatment providers, prevention specialists, program planners, or government officials; and the Distinguished International Scientist Collaboration Program Award for senior drug abuse researchers from other countries.

NIDA INVEST Letter, Fall 2001

The lead story in this issue reported on the Sixth NIDA International Forum, Building International Research on Drug Abuse: Children and Youth at Risk, and announced the abstract deadline for the 2002 Forum, which will focus on drug abuse treatment innovations June 6 through 8 in Quebec City, Canada. International researchers were invited to apply for the 2002 WHO/NIDA/CPDD International Traveling Fellowships, offered in conjunction with the Forum. The 2001-2002 INVEST Research Fellows were announced.

Drs. Harold Gordon, DTR&D, Maria D. Majewska, DTR&D and Pushpa Thadani, DNBR, were guest editors for a double issue of Psychoneuroendocrinology 27(1-2), January, 2002, entitled "Stress and Drug Abuse" including invited papers from presenters at three NIDA-sponsored workshops on this topic. Harold Gordon was the author of a paper in that issue entitled "Early Environmental Stress and Biological Vulnerability to Drug Abuse,"; the other guest editors also wrote articles.

Dr. Peter Hartsock and NIDA grantees at the University of New Mexico and University of Alaska produced the lead paper, titled “Stigma, Ethics, and the Frontier” in a special (Spring/Summer) issue of the National Science Foundation (NSF) journal, Arctic Research of the United States. The NIDA-funded five-year project reported on ethically important aspects of rural health care for stigmatizing illnesses (e.g., substance abuse, HIV/AIDS, and sexually transmitted diseases).

Thirteen editions of the CTN Bulletin Board were distributed this period. The Bulletin Board is an electronic report on the activities of the various protocol teams and subcommittees of the CTN.

The Fall/Winter 2001 edition of the CTN Report, a quarterly newsletter on the CTN, was distributed in late January, 2002.

Chinman, M., Imm, P., Wandersman, A., Kaftarian, S., Neal, J., Pendleton, K., and Ringwalt. Using the Getting to Outcomes (GTO) Model in a Statewide Prevention Initiative. Health Promotion Practice, 2(4), pp. 302-309, 2001.

Preston, K.L., Umbricht, A., Wong, C.J., and Epstein, D.H. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, pp. 643-654, 2001.

Fontaine K.R., Cheskin L.J., Carriero N.J., Jefferson L., Finley C.J., and Gorelick D.A. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 101, pp. 1467-1469, 2001.

Koren, A.O., Chefer, S.I., Mukhin, A.G., Pavlova, O.A., Horti, A.G., Vaupel, D.B., London, E.D. and Kimes, A.S. Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals, 44, S257-259, 2001.

Ernst, M., Heishman, S.J., Spurgeon, L, and London, E.D. Neuropsychopharmacology, 25, pp. 313-319, 2001.

Heishman, S. J. Tobacco – the once and future addiction. Addiction, 96, pp. 1389-1390, 2001.

Krasnova, I.N., Ladenheim, B., Jayanthi, S., Oyler, J., Moran, T.H., Huestis, M.A., and Cadet, J.L. Amphetamine-induced Toxicity in Dopamine Terminals in CD-1 and C57BL/6J Mice: Complex Roles for Oxygen-based Species and Temperature Regulation. Neuroscience 107(2), 265-274, 2001.

Wang, Y., Chang, C.F., Morales, M., Chou, J., Chen, H.L., Chiang, Y.H., Lin, S.Z., Cadet, J.L., Deng, X., Wang, J.Y., Chen, S.Y., Kaplan, P.L. and Hoffer, B.J. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-6 Reduces Ischemia-induced Brain Damage in Rats. Stroke, 32(9), pp. 2170-2178, 2001.

Deng, X., Wang, Y., Chou, J., and Cadet, J.L. Methamphetamine Causes Widespread Apoptosis in the Mouse Brain: Evidence from Using an Improved TUNEL Histochemical Method. Mol Brain Res, 93(1), pp. 64-69, 2001.

Cadet, J.L. Molecular Neurotoxicological Models of Parkinsonism: Focus on Genetic Manipulation of Mice, Parkinsonism Related Disorders, 8(2), pp. 85-90, 2001.

Ranaldi, R., and Wise, R.A. Blockade of D1 Dopamine Receptors in the Ventral Tegmental Area Decreases Cocaine Reward: Possible Role for Dendritically Released Dopamine. Journal of Neuroscience, 21, pp. 5841-5846, 2001.

Grimm, J.W., Hope, B.T., Wise, R.A., and Shaham, Y. Incubation of Cocaine Craving after Withdrawal. Nature, 412, pp. 141-142, 2001.

Kiyatkin, E.A., and Wise, R.A. Striatal Hyperthermia Associated with Arousal: Intracranial Thermorecordings in Behaving Rats. Brain Research, 918, pp. 141-152, 2001.

You, Z-B., Chen, Y-Q., and Wise, R.A. Dopamine and Glutamate Release in the Nucleus Accumbens and Ventral Tegmental Area of Rat following Lateral Hypothalamic Self-stimulation. Neuroscience, 107, pp. 629-639, 2001.

Ranaldi, R., Bauco, P., McCormick, S., Cools, A.R., and Wise, R.A. Equal Sensitivity to Cocaine Reward in Addiction Prone and Addiction Resistant Rat Genotypes. Behavioural Pharmacology, 12, pp. 527-534, 2001.
De Vries, T.J., Shaham, Y., Homberg, J.R., Crombag, H., Schuurman, K., Dieben, J., Vanderschuren, L.J., and Schoffelmeer, A.N. A Cannabinoid Mechanism in Relapse to Cocaine Seeking. Nat Med, 7(10), pp. 1151-1154, Oct 2001.

Highfield, D., Yap, J., Grimm, J.W., Shalev, U., and Shaham,Y. Repeated Lofexidine Treatment Attenuates Stress-induced, but Not Drug Cues-induced Reinstatement of a Heroin-Cocaine Mixture (Speedball) Seeking in Rats. Neuropsychopharmacology, 25(3), pp. 320-331, Sept 2001.

Shalev, U., Morales, M., Hope, B., Yap, J., and Shaham, Y. Time-dependent Changes in Extinction Behavior and Stress-induced Reinstatement of Drug Seeking following Withdrawal from Heroin in Rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl)., 156(1), pp. 98-107, June 2001.

Sarnyai, Z., Shaham, Y., and Heinrichs, S.C. The Role of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor in Drug Addiction. Pharmacol Rev, 53(2), pp. 209-243, June 2001.

Shalev, U., Yap, J., and Shaham, Y. Leptin Attenuates Acute Food Deprivation-induced Relapse to Heroin Seeking. J Neurosci., 21(4), RC129, Feb 2001.

Ikemoto, S., and Sharpe, L.G. A Head-attachable Device for Injecting Nanoliter Volumes of Drug Solutions into Brain Sites of Freely Moving Rats. J Neurosci Methods, 110(1-2), pp.135-140, Sept. 30, 2001.

Burgdorf, J., Knutson, B., Panksepp, J., and Ikemoto, S. Nucleus Accumbens Amphetamine Microinjections Unconditionally Elicit 50-kHz Ultrasonic Vocalizations in Rats. Behav Neurosci, 115(4), pp. 940-944, Aug 2001.

Burgdorf, J.S., Knutson, B., Panksepp, J. and Shippenberg, T.S. Ultrasonic Vocalizations Mark Naloxone –induced Avoidance Behavior in Rats. Psychopharmacology, 155(1), pp. 35-42, 2001.

Schenk, S., Partridge, B. and Shippenberg, T.S. Effects of the Kappa Opioid Receptor Agonists, U69593, on the Development of Sensitization and on the Maintenance of Cocaine Self-administration. Neuropsychopharmacology, 24(4), pp. 441-450, 2001.

Acri, J., Thompson, A.C. and Shippenberg, T.S. Modulation of Pre- and post-synaptic Dopamine D2/D3 Receptor Function by the Selective k-opioid Receptor Agonist, U69593. Synapse, 39(4), pp. 343-350, 2001.

He, M., Sibille E., Benjamin, D., Shippenberg, T.S and Toth M. Differential Effects of 5HT1a-receptor Deletion upon Basal and Fluoxetine-evoked Increases in 5-HT Levels as Revealed by In vivo Microdialysis. Brain Research, 902, pp. 11-17, 2001.

Zapata, A., Witkin, J.M. and Shippenberg, T.S. Selective D3 Receptor Agonist Effects of (+)-PD 128907 on Dialysate Dopamine at Low Doses. Neuropharmacology, 41(3), pp. 351-359, 2001.

Kaminski, R., van Rijn, C.M., Turski, W.A., Czuczwar, S.J., and van Luijtelaar, G. AMPA and GABAB Receptor Antagonists and their Interaction in Rats with a Genetic Form of Absence Epilepsy. European Journal of Pharmacology, 430, pp. 251-259, 2001.

Kaminski, R., Mazurek, M., Turski, W.A., Kleinrok, Z., and Czuczwar, S.J. Amlodipine Enhances the Activity of Antiepileptic Drugs against Pentylenetetrazol-induced Seizures. Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior, 68, pp. 661-668, 2001.

Dekundy, A., Blaszczak, P., Kaminski, R., and Turski, WA. On the Interactions between Antimuscarinic Atropine and NMDA Receptor Antagonists in Anticholinesterase-treated Mice. Archives of Toxicology, 74, pp. 702-708, 2001.

Newman, A.H., Zou, M-F., Ferrer, J.V., and Javitch, J.A. [3H]MFZ 2-12: A Novel Radioligand for the Dopamine Transporter. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 11, pp. 1659-1661, 2001.

Robarge, M.J., Husbands, S.M., Kieltyka, A., Brodbeck, R., Thurkauf, A., and Newman, A.H. Design and Synthesis of Novel Ligands Selective for the Dopamine D3 Receptor Subtype. J. Med. Chem., 44, pp. 3175-3186, 2001.

Matsumoto, R.R., Hewett, K.L., Pouw, B., Husbands, S.M., Cao, J.J., and Newman, A.H. Rimcazole Analogs Attenuate the Convulsive Effects of Cocaine: Correlation with Binding to Sigma Receptors Rather than Dopamine Transporters. Neuropharmacology, 41, pp. 878-886, 2001.

Zou, M., Kopajtic, T., Katz, J.L., Wirtz, S., Justice, Jr., J.J., and Newman, A.H. Novel Tropane-based Irreversible Ligands for the Dopamine Transporter. J. Med. Chem., 44, pp. 4453-4461, 2001.

Cao, J., Husbands, S.M., Kopajtic, T., Katz, J.L. and Newman, A.H. [3-cis-3,5-Dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)alkyl]-bis-(4’-fluorophenyl)amine Analogs as Novel Probes for the Dopamine Transporter. Bioorg Med. Chem. Lett., 11, pp. 3169-3173, 2001.

Chausmer, A.L. and Katz, J.L. The Role of D2-like Dopamine Receptors in the Locomotor Stimulant Effects of Cocaine in Mice. Psychopharmacology, 155, pp. 69-77, 2001.

Chausmer, A.L. and Katz, J.L. Comparison of Interactions of D1-like Agonists, SKF 81297, SKF 82958 and A-77636, with Cocaine: Locomotor Activity and Drug Discrimination Studies in Rodents. Published online: 22 September 2001.

Morales, M., McCollum, N. and Kirkness, E.F.. 5-HT3-receptor Subunits A and B are Co-expressed in Neurons of the Dorsal Root Ganglion. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 438, pp. 163-172, 2001.

Sarabi, A., Hoffer, B.J., Olson, L. and Morales, M., GFRa-1 mRNA in Dopaminergic and Non-dopaminergic Neurons in the Substantia Nigra and Ventral Tegmental Area. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 441, pp 106-117, 2001.

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